I will scatter them, and then I will gather them: Deuteronomy 4:27; 28:64; 32:26; Isaiah 11:12;

Jeremiah 23:8 / Read about the African Slave Trade in Deuteronomy 28th Chapter.

REPARATIONS NOW IN OUR LIFETIME!

N E W S L E T T E R…….#21

AUGUST 2001

 

>>>>>>>>>SPECIAL EDITION<<<<<<<<<

 

T H E   W O R L D   C O N F E R E N C E   A G A I N S T  R A C I S M

August 31, 2001 - September 7, 2001

 

OUR NEEDS MUST BE HEARD AT

THE WORLD CONFERENCE AGAINST RACISM:

REPARATIONS MUST BE PAID FOR THE RAPE OF AFRICA AND

THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE,

DECENDANTS OF THIS BLACK HOLOCAUST MUST BE COMPENSATED FOR

FORCED MIGRATION AND ETHNIC CLEANSING,

BLACKS MUST BE GIVEN AN OPPORTUNTY TO LEAVE THE LANDS OF OUR CAPTIVITY,

INSTITUTIONAL RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION, RACIAL PROFILING, POLICE BRUTALITY AND MURDER MUST BE BROUGHT TO AN END,

BLACKS MUST FINALLY BE GIVEN THE RIGHT TO SELF DETERMINATION,

THE U.S. GOVERNMENT MUST START SPENDING THE SAME BILLIONS ON THE INNER CITIES (GHETTOES), AND RURAL SOUTH THAT IT SPLURGES ON ISRAEL,

AND

DESCENDANTS OF SLAVES MUST BE SERVED JUSTICE AND AN OPPORTUNITY TO PURSUE HAPPINESS AND EXERCISE THE SAME HUMAN RIGHTS

THAT ALL OTHER GROUPS ARE AFFORDED!

*********

WE ARE HUMAN BEINGS, AND WE OWE IT TO OUR CHILDREN TO ESTABLISH AND DEMAND BETTER LIVES FOR THEM AND FOR OURSELVES!

*********

GIVE POWER AND MEANING TO

THE REPARATIONS MASS MOVEMENT - GIVE OF YOURSELF!

*********

"Take direct action against the U.S. government!" Dr. Robert Brock

*********

Note from the REPNOW Newsletter Editor:

 

To those attending the World Conference Against Racism (WCAR) in behalf of Africa and the Descendants of Slaves, again, I pray that the Most High GOD will be with you as you strive to end the racism that Blacks face and acquire Reparations for the TransAtlantic Slave Trade that has resulted in our suppression and our being under the control of the Descendants of the Slave Masters since being forced from the shores of Africa.

The high volume of information in the media today concerning RACISM, The World Conference Against Racism, and Reparations for the TransAtlantic Slave Trade should be the topic of discussion at the breakfast table, in the religious circles, during lunch on the job market, on Black radio and TV talk shows, on the college campuses, as we dine in restaurants, and with our Congressional Representatives. The United States has got to address the bondage and affliction the Slaves out of Africa endured and the suppression, racism, discrimination, and prejudice so-called African Americans face today.

The information in these Reparations Newsletters is essential documentation for all seeking knowledge concerning payment for the DEBT owed from the TransAtlantic Slave Trade and is very enlightening about the degrading incidents and misery Blacks face in ghettoes and in the rest of this White Society that affords Blacks and other people of color the worst educational system in the country. College students taking courses in Black History should realize the scholarship of our people on the Internet and included in these Reparations Newsletters. I applaud my people for their research and courage in coming forward with news we can use, so that all of us in the dark can see the whole Truth of our predicament in the United States. How I wish that the information in the articles in these REPNOW Newsletters had been available when I thirsted so much to know about the Slave Trade that totally inhibited, brainwashed, and destroyed my People.

Regarding The World Conference Against Racism, if the United States doesn’t want to discuss Racism and Reparations for the atrocities of the Slave Trade in South Africa, why then isn’t it discussed and brought to an end in the US? And if such a meeting takes place, then the United States should also explain why it builds new housing settlements in Israel and contributes towards the Israeli social programs but won’t improve the infrastructure of the Black ghettoes where the working poor must live because of their economic status. If Blacks are going to choose to stay in the United States, then by all means necessary demand that the US government do justly by Descendants of Slaves.

Blacks are a hated people all over the World. If this were not true, there never would have been a Slave Trade. And contrary to popular belief, "Most White Folks are indeed racist," otherwise "Most Whites Folks" would have ended the degradation and racism Blacks and other people of color experience on a daily basis in these United States and throughout this White Society. If we do not form a UNITED FRONT to end the atrocities committed against us, then we have no one to blame but ourselves!

Be sure to inform at least ten people about the REPARATIONS NOW IN OUR LIFETIME NEWSLETTER! Information regarding the TransAtlantic Slave Trade and Reparations for this crime has got to reach all our people if we want everyone involved in this fight for justice served and for true FREEDOM and liberty to pursue happiness. Believe it or not, there are still too many Blacks out there who know NOTHING and have heard NOTHING about Reparations for Descendants of Slaves.

GET BUSY, MY PEOPLE, GET INVOLVED, AND GET THE WORD OUT THERE!

I will be on vacation for two weeks, but will still have periodic access to my E-mail.

Tziona Yisrael, Editor

REPARATIONS NOW IN OUR LIFETIME Newsletter

www.thelawkeepers.org

(Click on "Repnow")

P.S. On Thursday August 23, I had the pleasure of meeting with Dr. Saharra Bledsoe in Washington, D.C. during the Historical Nation-Wide Petition Campaign she started (that’s been taking place since this past Tuesday). I cannot tell you how encouraged and more determined I am to be involved in this our thrust for Reparations. Dr. Bledsoe is truly an inspiration and an asset to the cause. I was absolutely fascinated with her written "Program and Budget" for a holistic approach to eliminate the ghettoes and to improve the economic and social status of the impoverished in the United States. In addition to that I found Dr. Bledsoe deeply involved and committed to increasing awareness of Reparations at the grassroots level and getting 50,000 signatures for the DEBT owed to Descendants of Slaves. If we ALL followed her lead, every Black in America would soon know about Reparations and why it is so important that we acquire these monies.

WebSites involved with her fight for Reparations are as follows:

www.unity4theworld.com

www.nabvets.com

JoeWynn.Nabvets@verizon.net

Dr. Saharra Bledso

MzWayMaker@aol.com

*********

NGO’s VOW TO FIGHT TO THE END FOR REPARATIONS AT

THE WORLD CONFERENCE AGAINST RACISM

Tuesday, August 14, 2001

PRESS RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Racism Conference - Trans Atlantic Slave Trade a Crime & Reparations

PRESS CONFERENCE

Tuesday, August 14, 2001 at 11am

Sistas Place Coffee House

456 Nostrand Ave, Brooklyn, NY

Veteran human rights activist Viola Plummer stated unequivocally, "NGO's are prepared to resist the intensified under-the-table arm twisting and threats by US and Europe" in their effort to derail the demand for "Declaration of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and Slavery as a Crime against Humanity" and for "Reparations for People of African Descent" in the upcoming World Conference against Racism (WCAR) in Durban, South Africa. Plummer said " We will fight to the end!"

Invited speakers were:

Dr. Conrad Worrill of the National Black United Front

Viola Plummer of the December 12th Movement International Secretariat

Roger Wareham, Esq. of the International Association against Torture, Esmeralda Simmons of the Center for Law and Social Justice Muntu Matsimela of Africa Action

Elombe Brath of the Patrice Lumumba Coalition

Iman Drammeh of the Drammeh Institute and Ron Daniels of the Center for Constitutional Rights.

For more than a decade the December 12th Movement has been an active participant in the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and was a key organization in having the UN convene this World Conference. The National Black United Front has led a drive to petition the UN for genocide committed by the US against its Black citizens and has been closely involved in the preparations for the World Conference.

DECEMBER 12TH MOVEMENT

456 Nostrand Avenue

Brooklyn, NY 11216

  1. 398-1766 (phone) 623-1855 (fax)

E-mail: D12M@aol.com

Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com

**********

USA THREATENS WCAR BOYCOTT

August 10, 2001

The big secret is finally out in the open. U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell has publicly threatened the organizers of the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (WCAR) that the United States is prepared to boycott the United Nations gathering if its demands are not met. Those demands are to remove references to Zionism from the draft declaration as well as defining slavery as a crime against humanity meriting Black reparations. If not, Powell says, the United States government will not participate in the deliberations scheduled for August 31 - September 8th in Durban, South Africa.

The public announcement follows months of behind the scenes pressure by the Bush Administration to delete what they think is offensive and issues that they are not prepared to see discussed before the world body of racial justice activists. The zionist lobby has been vociferous in its demands that the U.S. draw a line in the sand on categorizing the Israeli treatment of Palestinians as racist, even though this formulation already appears in former UN documents. The pressure was so intense that representatives of governments who had previously recognized the colonial status of the Palestinian people have capitulated to this blackmail and are asking the delegates "not to rock the boat" in the name of the broader interests of the global antiracist movement. At this point, the enormous arm-twisting seems to have succeeded and the language on Zionism does not look like it will appear in the final declaration.

It has proven more difficult to isolate those Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) that have been carrying the banner for Black reparations, and this has presented a knotty problem for the U.S. The conference has been divided into many working groups on specific topics and the one devoted to reparations has been one of the most active and the most successful in organizing a strategy to see that this is included in the final declaration. This was reinforced by an Africa and Africa-Descendents caucus that is united on a strategy aimed at influencing the WCAR on three main issues. These issues are the first three points of a ten-point call-to-action on which the Caucus reached a consensus in the meeting in Geneva this past week:

  1. that the transatlantic slave trade, slavery and colonialism are crimes against humanity;
  2. that the victims of the slave trade, slavery and colonialism - i.e., Africans and African descendants - are entitled to reparations; and
  3. recognition of the economic basis of racism - that is, the linkage between the exploitation of Black labor and racism

To many, these may seem like mild assertions and it may be difficult to grasp why the U.S. is so adamantly opposed to these formulations. However, this debate is not merely a demand for belated recognition of Europe and America's misbegotten racist past. At stake for the United States and its allies is a political and ideological struggle that is taking place in the context of 21st century economic globalization.

At an international level, the U.S. and its allies want to deny responsibility for the current emiseration of their former colonies in Africa, Latin America or Asia. In particular, they want to sever the link between contemporary poverty and five centuries of slave trading and colonialism. This boils down to a refusal to offer substantive debt relief, which keeps Africa and other former colonies indentured to U.S. financial institutions.

On the domestic front, the reparations theme poses an adamant rejection of the "new racism" that guides the Bush Administration. This neo-racism discards discredited biological racism in favor of attacking the demands to redress grievances as "reverse" racism. Its proponents deny the ongoing existence of racism and therefore the need for compensatory programs. What is worse, the neo-racists cloak their support for maintaining white supremacy in a bogus call for reconciliation based upon abandoning the concrete struggle for racial justice. In its place we are offered domestic assaults on affirmative action - an extremely modest compensatory program. And then we are offered the thinly disguised racialized privatization schemes of public services and schools, which constitute neoliberalism's U.S. face.

There is no such thing as institutional racism, Bush claims, and racial disparities are dismissed by blaming the victims of racial bias for their own impoverished status, for the high Black incarceration rate, for low educational achievement and Black political marginalization in U.S. society.

For African Americans the demand that the world body recognize slavery as a crime against humanity that merits compensation would call the internal logic of the neo-racist agenda into question. And this movement is growing. Over the past few years, activists have pushed reparations to the center of discourse in the African American community. And some successes have been achieved, even within the framework of traditional politics. Several city councils, for example, have passed pro-reparation resolutions, including Chicago, Detroit and Dallas. And now this battle is being taken to the international community. In this context, the political and ideological legitimacy that the demand for reparations would achieve if included in the final declaration of the World Conference Against Racism would be immeasurable.

That is why the U.S. and the European Union (EU) have been dragging their feet about appointing a high level WCAR delegation. It is also why most of the foundation community, has been stingy with their financial backing. And that is why - until the U.S. threat to boycott - the media has been complicit in keeping most U.S. people ignorant of the fact that the conference was even occurring.

The agenda battle has re-ignited remembrance of the white arrogance associated with the colonial past. David Commissiong, a Barbadian official, said of the stance taken by the EU and US, "We are talking about dealing with the current, existing legacies of that past" and "we are disappointed that the former colonial powers - and we should emphasize that some still are colonial powers - are so reluctant to acknowledge the indisputable facts of history and to come up with concrete solutions to many of the disturbances and injustices that stem from that history."

The African National Congress (ANC), the ruling party in the host country, was even more blunt. Its spokesman Smuts Ngonyama insisted that no one country should be allowed to "dictate to the world" what should be on the agenda of the WCAR. "Other countries also have a right to express what should be on the agenda," he continued, "but the democratic process has to follow. We don't want a world where a player can completely dictate to others."

Whatever the final U.S. decision, the ploy to hold the UN hostage via the boycott threat and the backroom arm-twisting is beginning to add up to a major diplomatic blunder, which has further eroded any claim the U.S. still had as a leading proponent of "democracy."

By Frances M. Beal <fbeal@aclunc.org>

Frances M. Beal is a columnist for the San Francisco Bay View newspaper and National Secretary of the Black Radical Congress. The views and opinions expressed in this article are her own.

Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca

[Beal’s views are that of mine, as well. T.Y., Editor]

*********

REPARATIONS AND BEYOND

August 13, 2001

WASHINGTON - 08.11.01 --From the inception of our nation in 1776 to 1868 a thriving slave trade flourished between the United States and various African nations. An estimated 30-60 million African men, women, and children were forcibly taken from their African homelands and brought here to the United States and enslaved. These people and their families were never compensated by the US government for damages and human suffering, which was caused by this crime against humanity. That is why I am issuing a call for the issue of reparations to be studied seriously in this country. I also believe that the United States should issue an official apology for its participation in the world slave trade of the 18th and 19th centuries.

The issue of reparations for blacks has long been avoided in this country although there are countless reasons that validate the need. US jurisprudence and history have honored the tradition of paying victims for damages and suffering. US history is replete with instances of US support for the payment of reparations to individuals and communities that have been wronged by the US government. The United States government has even apologized at least once for mistreating some of its citizens of color. The only thing unusual about a discussion of reparations or payment of damages in the American context is the outcry against reparations or damages being paid to black people. The very outcry itself, given US history, is a sad indicator of how far away this country really is from the One America that we all want to see and live in.

The treatment of blacks in this country has historically been deplorable and while steps have been made to better the racial climate, nothing has been done to compensate those who have been wronged in the process. Bush does not want to talk about reparations because he opposes paying compensation to black Americans for slavery. That is what Ari Fleischer his spokesman, had the nerve to categorically state at a White House briefing. I hope that is a mischaracterization of President Bush's attitude, especially given the facts surrounding the November 2000 elections. Fortunately, the facts of the long, sorry story of the mistreatment of African Americans doesn't depend on the supposed opinions of President Bush. Sadly, however, even the Emancipation Proclamation failed to end the story. The end of the Civil War merely ushered in yet another chapter in the long book on black marginalization in the US that is still being written today.

The ignoble 1857 Dred Scott decision saw the United States Supreme Court rule that no black man could be regarded as an equal and therefore had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. Not even The Fourteenth Amendment, which was the constitutional rejoinder to the Dred Scott decision, could effectively protect Black women and men from the deep-seated racism, which produced Jim Crow and the end of the Reconstruction Era. The Supreme Court nailed apartheid into the fabric of America with its 1892 Plessy vs. Ferguson decision which legally enshrined "separate but equal" as US custom and law. Segregation would remain the law of the land until its demise three-quarters of a century later.

Plessy versus Ferguson ushered in "Jim Crow" laws and marked the end of the post-Civil War Reconstruction Era. Blacks were now legally barred from access to employment and public places such as restaurants, hotels, and other facilities. By the early 20th Century, every Southern state had passed laws that created two separate societies; one black, the other white. Blacks and whites could not ride together in the same railroad cars, sit in the same waiting rooms, use the same washrooms, or drink from the same water fountains. Blacks were denied access to parks, beaches, and picnic areas; they were barred from many hospitals. What had been maintained by custom in the rural south had become sanctioned by the United States Supreme Court as the law of the land. These laws were not overturned until the 1954 Brown versus Board of Education Supreme Court decision and the subsequent passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

The millions of blacks who lived and worked in America's completely segregated society, suffered a century of terror and lynchings at the hands of the Ku Klux Klan and the general public and the complete failure of the state to protect them.

Human Rights Watch recently issued a report stating that the US should pay reparations not only for slavery, but for segregation, too. No mention is made in the Human Rights Report of the one hundred years of lynchings subjected to Black people in America. Four little girls bombed to their deaths in 1963 are only just now beginning to have justice served; however their parents, relatives, and an entire grieving community received nothing in compensation for their suffering.

A recent and commendable Wall Street Journal article reported that in the early 20th century, tens of thousands of convicts, most of whom were black men, were snared in a largely forgotten justice system rooted in racism and nurtured by economic expedience. Alabama was perhaps the worst offender, but certainly was not the only one. Until nearly 1930, Alabama was providing convicts to businesses hungry for hands to work in farm fields, lumber camps, railroad construction gangs and, especially in later years, mines. For state and local officials, the incentive was money and for many years, convict leasing was one of Alabama's largest sources of funding. Nearly two decades after slavery was abolished in America, men were dying as slaves in a prison work scheme that benefited southern states and businesses. Alabama's forced labor system generated nearly $17 million for the state government alone, or between $225 million and $285 million in today's dollars. Of course, this does not include the profits accruing to the many southern companies that benefited from this mostly-black slave labor.

Unfortunately slavery, Jim Crow segregation, and prison slave labor were not enough for the purveyors of state-sanctioned racial discrimination of the American sort. The Federal Government of the United States used all its available resources to thwart the call of African Americans for the US to respect their basic human rights. Thus, the COINTELPRO program was born. COINTELPRO was the FBI's secret program to undermine the struggle for freedom from racism and discrimination that was led by African American, and later Native American, Latino, and progressive white organizations. Though the name stands for "Counterintelligence Program," the targets were not enemy spies. In an infamous FBI memo, the stated purpose of COINTELPRO was to "expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize the activities of black nationalist " organizations as well as "their leadership, spokesmen, membership, and supporters."

The FBI took the law into its own hands and secretly used fraud, force, harassment, intimidation, psychological-warfare, other forms of deception, and even murder, to sabotage constitutionally protected political activity. This reign of terror left countless black, white, Native American, and Latino victims behind bars who were convicted of bogus crimes and to this day are serving exceptionally long sentences that arose from their politically motivated actions. Many of these men and women who have committed their lives to movements that sought justice in an era marked by war, racial violence, and political assassinations, are aging behind prison walls, serving longer sentences than they would have in any other industrialized nation.

Additionally, there have been many victims of COINTELPRO. Our country's democracy is the biggest victim. That our laws could be subverted by a small group of people in high office is a clear danger to all of us. However, that it was done specifically to this country's people of color to deny them and the United States the benefit of the authentic leadership of true representatives of America's communities, especially America's black community, deprives us all of talents that are even now desperately needed but wasted in graveyards, prisons, or in fractured individuals, families and communities. This illegal US government activity affected more than the individuals involved, but also their families and our entire community.

Today the vestiges of racial discrimination, which began during the days of black race hatred and slavery, are still visible.

Black women and men are haunted by the reality that "Driving While Black" in many states makes you a prime target for police harassment. In the state of New Jersey, at least eight of every ten automobile searches carried out by state troopers on the New Jersey Turnpike over most of the last decade were conducted on vehicles driven by blacks and Hispanics--eighty percent of the stops, yet only 30% of the population. This is racial profiling at its worst. But New Jersey is not the only Driving While Black culprit.

The Justice Department admits that blacks are more likely than whites to be pulled over by police, imprisoned, and put to death. And, though blacks and whites have about the same rate of drug use, blacks are more likely to be arrested than whites and are more likely to receive longer prison sentences than whites.

Twenty-six black men were executed last year, some probably innocent; 2001 was begun by executing a retarded black woman.

Government studies on health disparities confirm that blacks are less likely to receive surgery, transplants, and prescription drugs than whites. Physicians are less likely to prescribe appropriate treatment for blacks than for whites and black scientists, physicians, and institutions are shut out of the funding stream to prevent this. As a result, Black American males and females experience shorter life expectancy rates than do their white counterparts. A black baby boy born in Harlem today has less chance of reaching age 65 than a baby born in Bangladesh.

In the US education system, 40% of all public schools are racially exclusive, meaning that fewer than 10% of their students are children of color while 40% of public schools in large cities are "intensely segregated," meaning that more then 90% of the students are children of color.

1998 statistics reveal that 26% of Blacks and 25% of Latinos live below the poverty level while only ten percent of whites live below the poverty level.

The entire world watched the debacle of the Year 2000 Presidential election in which countless black women and men were denied their constitutional right to vote, suffering the same disfranchisement that their grandmothers and grandfathers struggled to overcome half a century earlier. So bad was the spectacle that autocrats and dictators offered election monitors to the United States. Even former President Jimmy Carter, noted for his election monitoring around the world, stated that the US system was so bad that the US wouldn't even qualify for Carter Center monitors. Sadly, 2007 marks the expiration of important sections of the Voting Rights Act.

It is evident that the United States has not adequately addressed its problem of race. Additionally, it has failed to even account for all its transgressions against its black citizens. Passing laws has not been enough to stem the tide of the deep-seated racism rooted in the fabric of America. Even then, each time laws have been passed erosion of enforcement and the laws themselves has been a consistent problem. The Reconstruction Era, after the United States Civil War, was as short-lived as was the Second Reconstruction, which was inaugurated after the Brown versus Board of Education decision. However, the 1978 Bakke Supreme Court decision began the erosion of the real efforts to integrate the American mainstream. Shaw versus Reno and Johnson versus Miller are important voting Rights Act Supreme Court decisions which end the expansion of protections for blacks and other people of color for the right to representation. The expiration of critical sections of the Voting Rights Act could very well usher in a return of state-sanctioned black disfranchisement on a scale worse than what was discovered in the 2000 November Presidential election.

As you can see, the US is far from having adequately addressed its race problem. In addition, I believe the United States is in long-standing violation of international treaties that it has signed and ratified. Participation in the World Conference Against Racism is but one step needed to reverse the deep-seated appalling conditions and present-day treatment for people of color in this country. The United States could and should also apologize for its participation in the slave trade and the long history of racism against black people that that participation fostered and supported.

By Cynthia McKinney

Representative, Georgia, 4th District

http://www.tbwt.com/content/article.asp?articleid=1279

The Black World Today

Submitted by alarkam@webtv.net

[I applaud Representative McKinney’s courage to speak the absolute TRUTH, and I pray that every Black Congressional Member, organization, and individual stand behind her as she selflessly work in behalf of all Descendants of Slaves.]

*********

LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE PRESSES U.S. TO ATTEND

THE WORLD CONFERENCE AGAINST RACISM

August 20, 2001

Wading into an already contentious debate over the upcoming United Nations World Conference Against Racism, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) held a press conference on Thursday where it urged the United States to lend greater support to the goals of the conference.

Wade Henderson, Executive Director of the LCCR, said that despite disagreements over the conference agenda, which include a U.S. demand that the topic of reparations for slavery be banned from discussion, U.S. participation was crucial in demonstrating American commitment to combating racism around the world. The LCCR distributed a letter it sent to Secretary of State Colin Powell urging him to lead a high-level U.S. delegation to the conference.

Negotiations over the conference agenda have been stalled in recent weeks over several thorny issues, most notably an insistence by Arab countries that Israel be criticized as an "occupying power" that deprives Palestinians of basic rights. The United States has threatened to boycott the conference unless the language singling out Israel for criticism is dropped from the agenda.

Tackling the Israel controversy directly, Mr. Henderson said that instead of singling out Israel for criticism in preparatory documents, the general issue of racism in the Middle East should be addressed fairly during the conference itself.

One of the major roadblocks to U.S. participation was apparently removed last week when U.N. conference organizers announced that the contentious question of whether Zionism equaled racism would not be on the agenda, presumably ameliorating some U.S. opposition to the conference. The Bush Administration is expected to announce its decision on whether to attend the conference early this week.

During Thursday’s press conference, Mr. Henderson pointed out that because the upcoming racism conference was the first to focus on the behavior of individual nations, many of the countries involved are working behind the scenes to prevent discussion of racial discrimination within their borders. These include India, which wants to avoid discussion of its Dalit, or untouchables; Eastern European countries, which are not keen on examining the plight of Gypsies in the region; and the Sudan, which is against discussing its present-day slave trade. "No state is anxious to have its laundry aired," he said.

Other speakers highlighted issues that have received less attention. Marisa Demeo, Regional Counsel of the Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund, said that a key issue for the conference to address was the xenophobia faced by Mexican immigrants and migrant workers in the U.S. These groups are often denied access to U.S. healthcare and other social services, according to Ms. Demos, and they suffer from a harsh immigration policy that prevents families from re-uniting across the border. In addition, immigrants who are HIV-positive are barred from entering the country.

Keith Harper, senior staff attorney at the Native American Rights Fund, stressed the importance of examining how racism affects indigenous peoples. As an example, he noted that Native Americans do not enjoy the same protection of land rights as all other Americans. Instead, they have only "use and property rights," overseen by the federal government. This legal disparity confronts indigenous peoples throughout the world, he added, including Brazil, Canada, and Australia.

Sumita Bhandari, staff attorney of the National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium, urged the conference to address violence against Asian-Americans within the United States, which she said has been vastly underreported. According to Ms. Bhandari, there were 496 incidents of racially motivated violence against Asian-Americans in the U.S. last year.

On the issue of reparations for slavery, which has been nearly as controversial as the Israeli question, several speakers expressed dismay at the American insistence that reparations be left off the agenda. Mr. Henderson said it was unfair for the U.S. to make its participation conditional on avoiding the reparations issue. "Diplomatic extortion is outrageous. The World Conference Against Racism should not be held hostage to the U.S. getting its way," he said.

Others took aim directly at what they consider American hypocrisy on reparations. Dr. William Spriggs, an economist at the National Urban League, said it was disingenuous for the U.S. to justify its refusal to address reparations by maintaining that the conference needs to "move forward." He noted that the slave trade involved the forced transfer of 100 million people, the murder of 24 million of them, and the death of countless other millions due to forced labor.

"How can we ‘move forward’ if we can’t look back?" he asked.

During the question and answer period, Barbara Arwine, Executive Director of the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, and Ted Shaw, Associate Director-Counsel of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc., handled the sticky point of President Wade of Senegal's charge that demanding "reparations was absurd." Both agreed he was only one man, and thus his impact on the issue would be of no great consequence.

Charles Tanzer

TBWT UN Correspondent

Submitted by alarkam@webtv.net

*********

UNITED STATES ACCUSED OF DUCKING SLAVERY ISSUE

August 10, 2001

GENEVA (AP) - U.S. government threats to boycott the upcoming World Conference Against Racism over anti-Israeli language in proposed documents are helping it duck the issue of reparations for slavery, African-American campaigners said Friday.

``For the United States to continue beating the issue of the Middle East is a diversion,'' said Adjoa A. Aiyetoro, a law professor at American University who serves as legal consultant to the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America. ``They would rather play tough guy and bully and stay away as opposed to attempting to resolve the issues of racism in this world.''

The U.S. government has said that if language it regards as offensive about Israel remains in proposed documents to be adopted at the conference, it will boycott the meeting, which starts Aug. 31 in Durban, South Africa.

U.S. officials, siding with the European Union and Canada, have also rejected African demands that Durban back the payment of compensation by the countries that benefited from slavery and colonialism.

U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson said Friday that more progress had been made on the African issues than on the Middle East during the past two weeks of negotiations. There has been ``a significant narrowing of the differences'' over slavery and colonialism, Robinson said.

``The question of how to address the past was one of the most sensitive issues, and there is a genuine feeling that this is going to be one of the real breakthroughs in Durban, the kind of language that is now being brought together,'' she said.

Aiyetoro said the United States, Canada and the European Union were ``continuing in their historic roles as the upholders of white supremacy.''

``These governments are consistent in blocking any language that would characterize the tragedies of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, slavery and colonialism as crimes against humanity,'' she said.

``They have also summarily blocked any language that would provide for dialogue about compensatory measures, including reparations, which would repair the damage done to Africa, Africans, and African descendants.''

Aiyetoro said campaigners were ``not seeking payment because our ancestors were enslaved, but because of the situation today.''

``There should be no statute of limitations'' for crimes against humanity, she said. ``You can't deal with the future until you have dealt with the past.''

Reparations did not necessarily have to come as money, she said. Countries that benefited from slavery could cancel African nations' foreign debt, fund education and community development programs, return museum artifacts to Africa, and work harder to stop racial discrimination, she said.

***

[Personally, I want justice served for the cruel and merciless pain and suffering my forebears endured, as well as for the Human Rights crimes Blacks face today. I want to move on and out of this racist country where my forebears were enslaved with Reparations to start a new life and live where I can worship freely and pursue assured happiness. In essence, I want Reparations for Descendants of Slaves so that our forebears can rest in peace.]

**********

THE UNITED STATES IS URGED TO SEND DELEGATE

TO THE UNITED NATION RACISM CONFERENCE

August 17, 2001

UNITED NATIONS - US civil rights leaders yesterday called for Secretary of State Colin L. Powell to attend this month's United Nations conference on racism, which Washington is threatening to boycott.

''If the United States does not send an official delegation, we believe it will be a mistake,'' said Wade Henderson, executive director of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, a coalition of 180 civil and human rights groups.

''We think the absence of the US will certainly signal in some way that our country takes less seriously the debate over racial discrimination and racism than other countries in the world,'' he said at a news conference.

Henderson was joined at United Nations headquarters by leaders of six other US civil rights groups - including the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund and the National Urban League - two weeks before the kick-off of the conference on racism in Durban, South Africa.

The United States has threatened to skip the UN conference unless Arab states drop demands that the conference texts single out Israel as a ''racist'' occupying power.

US officials have also objected to including on the agenda the issue of reparations for victims of centuries of slavery and colonialism.

Negotiations in Geneva over language in the final conference texts ended in failure last week. Disagreements on the agenda kept the United States from attending two previous United Nations conferences on racism.

The leaders told reporters they were concerned about language relating to Israel in the draft text for the conference. However, they were sharply critical of the Bush administration's stance on slave reparations.

''It is especially hypocritical and undemocratic for the United States to take a position that the issue of slavery should not be considered a crime against humanity or that somehow an apology for past practices engaged in slavery should not be open for discussion,'' Henderson said.

In South Africa, meanwhile, about 2000 workers waved anti-American and anti-Israeli signs outside the US Embassy in Pretoria yesterday to protest the US threat to boycott the conference.

At the demonstration arranged by local unions and the South African communist party, protesters waved signs that read, ''Stop Apartheid Israel'' and ''United States: Stop Supporting Racism.''

Jan Tsiane, leader of a local political group, said those protesting yesterday identified with the Palestinian people and the current uprising against Israel.

We ''would have opted for the same option of becoming suicide bombers,'' Tsiane told the marchers, referring to the Palestinian militants who have blown themselves up in attacks on Israelis.

By Paul Thomasch,

Reuters, 8/17/2001

http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/229/nation/US_urged_to_send_delegate_to_UN_racism_conference+.shtml

Submitted by AlArkam@webtv.net (Malik Al-Arkam)

[RACISM is RACISM by any other name, and human beings who are the victims of this heinous crime know better than the guilty of this pain and suffering and the harm it can do to men, women, and children.]

*********

SOUTH AFRICANS IN RACE PROTEST OUTSIDE U.S. EMBASSY

August 16, 2001

PRETORIA (Reuters) - South African protesters demonstrated outside the U.S. embassy in Pretoria on Thursday to denounce Washington's refusal to brand Israel a racist state at an upcoming United Nations conference on racism.

The U.N. meeting, starting in Durban on August 31, may face a U.S. boycott over attempts by Arab states to have an anti-Israeli resolution adopted at the conference.

Some 3,000 protesters allied to South Africa's communist party and main trade union body handed over a petition to the embassy urging Washington to face up to "Zionist racism."

"We can see what side of the racism debate they are on...that country (United States) is still full of racism," Blade Nzimande, general secretary of the South African Communist Party, told protesters.

Speaker after speaker drew parallels between white-ruled South Africa under apartheid and Israel and its policies toward Palestinians.

Protesters carried pro-Palestine posters and others denouncing the U.S. and Israel.

"Viva Arafat, Viva PLO," one poster read in reference to Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and his Palestine Liberation Organization.

Other posters read: "Stop apartheid Israel" and "U.S.A. blackmail will not work."

Protesters blasted U.S. complicity in Israel's "apartheid, occupation, state terrorism, violent subjugation and an unfair economic blockade" against Palestinians.

Scores of police kept watch over the demonstration outside the embassy.

The protesters also slammed Washington's objections to reparations for victims of slavery and colonialism.

"Zionist racism and reparations for victims of slavery and colonialism must be on the agenda at the world conference," the petition said.

The U.S. and some European countries have resisted moves, led mainly by African states, to get delegates at the conference to press for reparations for centuries of slavery.

"When the issue of reparations for the victims of Nazism was being debated, the U.S. was enthusiastically in support...There is a clear case of double-standards being applied," the petition said.

The U.S. has yet to decide what level of delegation -- if any -- it will send to the conference which the U.N. wants to be a watershed in the fight against global racism and xenophobia.

Submitted by Black Radical Congress

[Once having lived in an APARTHEID Regime, the Black South Africans have not forgotten that the White powers-that-be in South Africa bought their weapons from racist Israelis, AND that too many of these racist White Jews enjoyed the privileges only Whites could in South Africa. Strange how RACISM just won’t let one forget the suppression and suffering it entails no matter where on this globe it exists.]

**********

The Reparations Movement’s goals are as follows:

- Obtain Reparations from all countries that prospered from Black Slave Labor

Schedule Conferences, Marches, and Protests until the White Society apologizes and

compensates Descendants of the Slave Trade

- Speak at the United Nations on Reparations for Survivors of the Slave Trade in order

to gain International Support from all or most countries

- Demonstrate in front of the UN in Geneva for World Attention

- Establish an International Fund for Descendants of Slaves

- Target Companies that existed during the days of Slavery for Reparations, and if they

do not comply, then list them as "Unworthy" for Black patronage

- Seek support for Reparations from Companies that prosper off of Black Clients

- Seek Celebrity support for Reparations

- Involve the Media

- Make "Reparations" the buzz word for the turn of the century

- Etc., etc., and by "any means necessary" within the Law

*********

IN SUPPORT OF REPARATIONS!

WAKE UP!

STAND UP!

STEP UP!

and DO SOMETHING IN SUPPORT OF REPARATIONS! OR

THERE CAN BE NO REAL - PEACE!

Ahna Tafari

*********

U.N. RACISM TALKS END WITHOUT AGREEMENT

NY Times Article

August 10, 2001

GENEVA (Reuters) - Talks failed Friday to settle angry disputes over how the U.N. Conference on Racism will deal with Israeli policies toward Palestinians and compensation for African slavery.

But U.N. human rights chief Mary Robinson put on a brave face, voicing optimism that consensus could be reached on final texts on both controversial issues at the conference which opens in Durban, South Africa, in three weeks.

``A lot remains to be done. But I can say a framework has emerged from this preparatory conference which will carry our work forward to Durban,'' Robinson told a closing session of two-week negotiations in Geneva.

Working groups are to pursue informal talks, but any compromise is expected to be hammered out in capitals, with Washington playing a key role, according to diplomats.

The United States has said it will not attend the Durban conference from Aug. 31-Sept. 7 unless Arab states drop demands that the conference texts single out Israel as a ``racist'' occupying power allegedly depriving Palestinians of basic rights.

The U.S. delegation took the floor to say it was pleased that ``some progress'' had been made, but accused some delegations of adopting ``extremist positions.''

``The agenda in Durban should not be to single out and brand a certain country as racist. Have we no shame?'' U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Michael Southwick said in a speech.

``We think the majority of countries are extremely uncomfortable with such a course of action,'' he added.

ISRAEL TO ``RECONSIDER'' ATTENDING

Yaakov Levy, Israeli ambassador to the U.N. in Geneva, expressed disappointment and as expected said his delegation would ``reconsider its participation'' at Durban in coming days.

``I wish to reiterate, the Middle East conflict is political, not racial,'' he said in a speech.

``Regrettably we found ourselves with the same shameful language in both documents,'' Levy said, referring to draft texts for the conference proposed by Arab and Islamic countries.

``If adopted in Durban, such language could affect the success of the Conference as well as the fight against racism and racial discrimination,'' Levy said.

Malaysia's delegate, speaking on behalf of Arab and Muslim member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, or OIC, appeared to strike a conciliatory note.

``The OIC wishes to express its willingness to engage in consultations to reach compromise to pave the way for a successful conference in Durban,'' he said.

Syria's delegation declared: ``The oppression suffered by the Palestinian people on racial grounds should be at the center of the work of the conference.''

Nabil Ramlawi, the Palestinian representative, said: ``We ask that racist practices by the Israeli occupation against the Palestinian people be discussed at Durban. ... We cannot set aside racism and racial discrimination and new forms of apartheid.''

Egyptian Ambassador Fayza Aboulnaga said Arab delegations had adopted a ``very reasonable, moderate and constructive'' position which had tried to take account of Israeli concerns.

``It is simply not logical for the conference to take place and ignore a boiling region and a situation of massive violations of human rights,'' she told Reuters.

On the question of potential compensation for slavery and colonization, a central issue was whether the final Durban text should include an apology for slavery in the past, according to Robinson, a former president of Ireland and trained lawyer.

This has raised questions about whether an apology forms a legal basis to seek monetary compensation in courts, she said.

Sources said any deal was unlikely to contain a formal apology, but instead would back aid to African countries.

REUTERS

http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/world/international-un raci.html?ex=998484763&ei=1&en=6affd40cbce441ff

***

The U.S.A. and Israel are fiercely determined to sabotage the upcoming WCAR. The U.S. government has no plans whatsoever to apologize, or make restitution to African-Americans who have been the victims of its policies of ethnocide, forced assimilation and institutionalized racism. Similarly the Israeli government has no plans to stop abusing and exploiting the Palestinians whose land it unjustly occupies.

As-Salaam-Alaikum

Submitted by AlArkam@webtv.net

[Note: "Extremist Positions" is equated with "Telling the Truth." If the U.S. and its allies do not go to WCAR in August to end RACISM and the issue of Reparations for the TransAtlantic Slave Trade and the economic legacy Whites incurred from this trade in Blacks out of Africa, then the WORLD should realize the consequences and unfairness Third World Countries will face involving so-called ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION.]

*********

THOUSANDS TO PROTEST AT RACISM CONFERENCE

Green Left Weekly

August 8, 2001

JOHANNESBURG -- An alliance that includes South Africa's emerging grassroots activist movements was formed on July 29 to organise mass protests at the United Nations World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (WCAR).

The eight-day WCAR will be held in Durban's plush International Conference Centre, next to the Hilton Hotel, beginning on August 31. A spokesperson for the alliance said 15,000 people may join the main protest set for September 1.

The Durban Social Forum (DSF), as the alliance has called itself, includes the Soweto Electricity Crisis Committee, which is fighting electricity cut-offs, the Concerned Citizens Forum (which has militantly fought evictions and water cut-offs in Durban), the Landless People's Movement, Jubilee 2000 (which demands the cancellation of Third World debt), the Anti-Privatisation Forum, the Treatment Action Campaign (which is campaigning for the government provision of anti-AIDS drugs), the Alternative Information and Development Centre (which campaigns for cancellation of the apartheid debt), and the National Consultative Forum on Palestine.

In a media statement, the DSF said that the WCAR protests would be "a focal point for all extra-parliamentary, people-driven and mass-based organisations that wish to express concerns both of a local and global nature". It went on to say: "It is our belief that the particular form that globalisation is taking (neo-liberalism) and the present economic policies of the South African government can only lead to greater divides between countries in the North and South. Within South Africa these policies can only lead to the deepening of poverty and social misery."

The African National Congress government has failed to deliver on its promises to address South Africa's apartheid legacy of an appalling housing shortage and widespread land hunger. In cities around the country, most of which are run by ANC administrations, people who cannot afford to pay rent, and water and electricity accounts, are being evicted and their basic services disconnected.

Critics point out that the ANC's neo-liberal economic policy is widening the gap between rich and poor and worsening rather than alleviating the problems created by the racist apartheid system.

Landless People's Movement spokesperson Andile Mngxitama said major issues concerning the landless would be discussed during the Landless People's Assembly on August 30.

Mngxitama said landlessness in South Africa was caused by racism and is continuing today.

The US government on July 26, announced it would boycott the WCAR if the conference includes the questions of Zionism and reparations for slavery and colonialism on its agenda.

A two-week meeting in June in Geneva that was to draw up an agenda and declaration for the conference ended in deadlock over whether Western countries that prospered from slavery and colonisation should apologise for the suffering caused -- and pay compensation. African governments demanded both, but Western governments, led by the US, Britain and Canada, resisted.

The proposed declaration prepared by African governments described the slave trade as "a unique tragedy in the history of humanity, a crime against humanity which is unparalleled" and said slavery, colonialism and apartheid "have resulted in substantial and lasting economic, political and cultural damage to African peoples". It demanded an "explicit apology" and the establishment of an international compensation program.

A meeting of southern African and European Jubilee and other anti-debt movements, held in Johannesburg June 29 and 30, condemned Western government moves to remove reparations from the WCAR agenda.

"A conference on racism that doesn't discuss slavery, colonialism and apartheid, and the need to repair the damage done, will at the outset fail to be able to deal with the issue of racism", the activists from 10 countries stated.

"Reparations are an acknowledgment of wrongdoing and send a message that human rights violations should not be repeated.

"In this light, the delegates opposed the attempt to remove the issue of ongoing discrimination against Palestine from the agenda... Victims of human rights violations have the right to seek justice, and resolved to develop plans for alternative forms of popular action for reparations during the UN conference."

If the US and other Western governments succeed in dictating the terms of the WCAR agenda, it is likely that the September 1, protest will be even larger than organisers expect, swelled by non-government organisations that otherwise would have restricted their opposition to racism to pious statements within the WCAR.

In a joint statement on August 2, the Congress of South African Trade Unions, the South African Communist Party and the South African National Civics Organisation condemned the threatened US boycott: "Too often, the United States resorts to blockades and military acts to blackmail and bully wherever it does not find its way. Now that this bully would not be able to use veto power in the conference, it is resorting to threats of boycott and blackmail. As predicted, Colin Powell and Koffi Annan, who themselves rank among the victims of racism, are trying to outdo each other in the service of their masters."

COSATU, the SACP and SANCO urged their structures in every South African province to join the march in Durban on September 1.

By Norm Dixon

http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/2001/459/459p18.htm

Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca

["The Truth shall set you free!" T.Y., Editor]

*********

BOYCOTT LOOMS FOR RACISM CONFERENCE

Friday, 10 August, 2001

Delegates have been working to narrow differences

Agenda-setting talks for the forthcoming World Conference against Racism have failed to produce agreement, prompting fears that Israel and the United States may boycott the meeting.

Israel said that repeated calls from Arab states to equate Zionism with racism were totally unacceptable and maintained that the Israeli Palestinian conflict should be completely removed from the agenda.

The talks were also unable to agree the exact wording on the issue of African demands for slavery compensation.

Earlier, UN Human Rights Commissioner Mary Robinson said progress had been made on language, adding that she was hopeful enough had been done to prevent the US boycott.

But BBC correspondent Emma Jane Kirby says Israel's decision will clearly have much influence over the US.

With less than three weeks to go before the negotiations are due begin in the South African city of Durban, she says, it is now questionable whether the conference will ever really get off the ground.

Political conflict

Asking to speak early because of the approach of the Jewish Sabbath, the Israeli ambassador to the UN, Yaakov Levy, accused the conference of singling out Israel and speaking of it with "shameful language". As the Friday midnight deadline for agreeing the agenda approached, Ambassador Levy said the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was essentially a political one and therefore had no place on the racism agenda. He said subsequently Israel would be considering is attendance at the conference in the days to come.

The US delegation said it was pleased there had been "some progress" but accused some delegations of extremism.

"The agenda in Durban should not be to single out and brand a certain country as racist. Have we no shame?" Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Michael Southwick said.

Ms Robinson said that agreement had been reached on the main paragraphs and there had been "considerable progress" with regard to language.

"There is a genuine feeling that this is going to be one of the real breakthroughs in Durban," she told journalists gathered for the Geneva meeting.

'Lynching of Israel'

The recent upsurge in violence in the Middle East had led to proposals to revive the 1975 United Nations General Assembly resolution that equated Zionism with racism.

The resolution was repealed in 1991, having been vehemently opposed by Israel and the United States.

At the beginning of the negotiations, Ms Robinson warned that if Zionism was once again put onto the agenda as a racist issue, the conference would fail.

US congressman Tom Lantos, a Holocaust survivor, said on Thursday that attending the conference would make the US "party to the lynching of Israel".

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1485000/1485243.stm

Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com

[When the White Jews spoke about "Never Again," they were not speaking about Survivors of the Black Holocaust and the impoverished Palestinians. They were talking about themselves and to hell with everybody else. Clearly, after all the US tax dollars do for White Jews, one would think that they would have more compassion for all people who suffer. Perish the thought! I await the day that there will be another USS Liberty disaster. Then we’ll see how protective the United States is of this country, or should that be how protective Israel is of the United States. T.Y., Editor]

*********

SLAVERY ROW DOGS RACISM CONFERENCE

August 11, 2001

 

Mary Robinson said progress had been made

Preparations for the forthcoming UN World Conference on Racism are being dogged not only by how the talks should deal with the Middle East problem, but by the stance it should adopt on reparations for the slave trade and colonialism.

Some American NGOs who have been attending the talks in Geneva over the past two weeks are accusing the United States of using the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a means of ducking the other major sticking point of negotiations.

The US was "beating the issue of the Middle East as a diversion", said Adjoa Aiyetoro, the spokesperson for the African and African Descendants Caucus and the US legal consultant for the US National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations.

Ms. Ayietoro said that her understanding of the outcome of the talks was that the US still had serious problems with the idea of apologising for slavery and colonialism, and in agreeing on the wording of the summit agenda document.

This was despite assurances from the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, that there had been much progress in addressing the issues of the past.

"We think their (the US) position is wrong," Ms Ayietoro said.

"It's another aspect of the United States not wanting to take responsibility for its conduct in enslaving our ancestors and engaging in the tragic transatlantic slave trade.

"Its a way of avoiding a full democratic discussion of the issues... and it violates the very diplomatic principles they say this country was founded on."

US boycott?

The United States objects to the calls from African nations to term the slave trade "a crime against humanity".

US legal advisers listen to the arguments

It also shares the fears of Canada and the European Union that an apology with a compensation package could open the way to a flood of individual lawsuits.

As preparatory talks ended in Geneva, Mary Robinson did, however, admit that no conclusive text had been drawn up.

She said negotiations would have to continue in Durban to agree a firm agenda for discussion. So now the US has a big political decision to make.

Does it boycott the conference from the outset, or should it risk attending Durban?

If it does so, and there is no further satisfactory progress made on the issues of zionism and reparations for colonialism, it may be forced to leave once discussions have begun, and in the full glare of world media attention.

By Emma-Jane Kirby in Geneva

Submitted by brc-reparations@yahoogroups.com

[If the United States, its allies, and Israel do not attend WCAR, then these two countries will be recording in the annals of history just how RACIST and MANIPULATIVE they really are. T.Y., Editor]

*********

 

NEGOTIATIORS GIVE UP BID FOR ACCORD BEFORE RACISM MEETING

 

August 11, 2001

U.N. Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson is urging countries not to reopen the issue of Zionism at the racism conference.

Zionism issue clouds talks as U.S., Israel threaten boycotts

GENEVA, — Negotiators from more than 100 countries have narrowed some differences over racism, but they failed to reach agreement on a document to guide discussions at an upcoming world conference on the issue.

‘What we are all now focusing on is how to ensure that the United States ... will be at Durban.’ MARY ROBINSON, U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights

AS TWO WEEKS of preparatory talks ended Friday, the United Nations’ top human rights official said she hoped the United States would find enough progress had been made to drop its threat to stay away from the meeting, starting Aug. 31 in Durban, South Africa.

"What we are all now focusing on is how to ensure that the United States ... will be at Durban," said Mary Robinson, U.N. high commissioner for human rights. Robinson has said that the conference could produce a "magna carta" for victims of discrimination, and everything from anti-immigrant sentiment in Europe to the plight of the world’s indigenous peoples has been on the table during months of discussion. But several thorny issues have blocked agreement on a guiding document. Specifically, references to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and African demands for reparations for slavery proved too much for negotiators to resolve. But Robinson said she thought a compromise could be reached when work resumes at the World Conference Against Racism in Durban.

Robinson said "there has been considerable progress" on demands by several African states for compensation for slavery and colonialism. "There is a genuine feeling that this is going to be one of the real breakthroughs in Durban, the kind of language that is now being brought together," she said.


The United States has opposed slavery compensation, and it wants language it regards as offensive toward Israel removed from draft statements.

A final decision on whether the United States will attend is expected only after the U.S. delegation returns to Washington and reports on the negotiations, officials said. Israeli Ambassador Yaakov Levy said late Friday that the "shameful language" on the Middle East in the proposed document was forcing Israel to reconsider whether it will go to Durban. One passage supported by Arabs lists both "the Jewish holocaust in Europe" and "the ethnic cleansing of the Arab population in historic Palestine and the Golan" as atrocities that should never be forgotten. It ignores Israel’s demand that the Holocaust, with a capital "H," was a unique, Jewish event and should stand alone in the document. However, the Islamic group did remove condemnation of Zionism, the movement that led to the founding of the modern state of Israel.

Ambassador Rajmah Hussain of Malaysia said the 57-country Organization of the Islamic Conference had shown "a spirit of flexibility and compromise" in trying to describe "the plight of the Palestinian people" under the "racist practices of the occupying power." Hussain said negotiations were halted because the United States and Israel refused to continue. "We are saddened by this development as we believe that the first step to finding consensus is to engage in dialogue," she said.

Michael Southwick, U.S. deputy assistant secretary of state, said his delegation had "entered earnestly" into the negotiations, but couldn’t accept the branding of Israel as racist. Robinson said efforts will continue to see whether it is possible to find "appropriate text" on the suffering of the Palestinian people. "A lot remains to be done, but a framework has emerged," Robinson said.

http://www.msnbc.com/modules/exports/ct_email.asp?/news/611072.asp

*********

SLAVERY’S LEGACY, AMERICA’S DEBT

August 9, 2001

Why won’t U.S. join the discussion about reparations?

The Bush Administration recently indicated that the United States will boycott the United Nations Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance in Durban, South Africa later this month unless the agenda is changed to conform to what the United States deems acceptable. This is simply the latest move of a government committed to isolationism and apparently determined to make the United States a pariah nation.

THE ADMINISTRATION’S stand that the price of U.S. participation is the removal of any discussion of reparations for slavery or Zionism as racism is high-handed, just plain stupid and serves to further alienate an administration already viewed as suspect. From the debacle of the 2000 election to the bogus tax cut to a roster of mediocre appointees and the refusal last month to sign the Kyoto Protocols on global warming endorsed by 178 nations, this administration appears self-referential, bull-headed and deeply out of touch. The Bush administration seems willfully blind to the issue of reparations for slavery, a conversation that has been going on among black Americans, largely ignored, for decades.

And in spite of efforts to portray Secretary of State Colin Powell as a serious player and not simply a poster boy for Republican ideas of racial inclusiveness, black America’s man in the Bush administration looks like he’s out of the loop and powerless on this one.
The administration seems willfully blind to the fact that the issue of reparations for slavery, a conversation that has been going on, largely ignored, for decades, has in the last few years become the major unifying issue in the African American community, transcending boundaries of class, geography and politics. The question of whether the descendants of slaves should be compensated for the stolen labor of their ancestors — who built not only the economic foundation of this nation but also some of its most prestigious buildings, including the U.S. Capitol — arguably is the most resonant issue in the African American community since the struggle for voting rights in the 1950’s.

WINDS OF CHANGE

Once again, the U.S. government is ignoring the winds of change, even as they steadily gain force. The concept of reparations is not a new one. The U.S. government already has paid reparations to Japanese Americans interned during WW II and to a few Native American tribes. European nations have compensated Holocaust survivors who were used as forced laborers. The National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America is working on a lawsuit, as is the Reparations Coordinating Committee, led by Harvard Law professor Charles Ogletree and Randall Robinson, founder of the Washington-based research organization TransAfrica. Robinson also is author of "The Debt," a recent book in which he makes a powerful argument for reparations. These lawsuits will focus on the responsibility of both the federal government and companies that profited from slavery. Every significant Black organization supports payment of reparations.

REFUSING TO TALK

It’s likely that the United States, home to more than 12 million descendants of slaves and ground zero for any discussion of reparations or racism, will not be officially represented in Durban.

Even so, the Bush Administration refuses to talk about it — or even listen to the discussion. This comes as no surprise from a president who seems to pride himself on his lack of intellectual curiosity and empathy. After eight months in office, Bush II’s strongest identifier in the black community remains his enthusiastic implementation of the racially discriminatory death penalty while governor of Texas. The opportunity to hear a diversity of opinions about and approaches to reparations and to participate in what will surely be fascinating discussions at the Durban Conference, which begins Aug. 31, seems lost on the current administration. Instead of taking advantage of a unique opportunity, Bush II reverts to America’s sadly familiar role as international bully and spoil sport, insisting that unless allowed to dictate the rules, he won’t play the game. The administration’s efforts to pressure other nations to support its position, publicly via meetings with Washington-based ambassadors is both coercive and undemocratic.

The outlook is bleak on meetings currently underway in Geneva led by Mary Robinson, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and co-chair of the conference, to hammer out a final agenda that the United States will support. The likelihood is that the United States, home to more than 12 million descendants of slaves and ground zero for any discussion of reparations or racism, will not be officially represented in Durban. A foolish decision, since burying America’s head in the sand won’t stop this global wind from gathering force.

By Jill Nelson

Jill Nelson is a journalist and author of books, most recently, "Police Brutality," a collection of essays by people of color. She is a regular contributor to MSNBC.com.

Submitted by alarkam@webtv.net

[WHAT MORE IS TO BE EXPECTED OF A COUNTRY BUILT ON SLAVE LABOR AND WHOSE POWERS-THAT-BE ARE DESCENDANTS OF THE SLAVE MASTERS? T.Y., Editor]

*********

THE DURBAN CONFERENCE: WILL AMERICA BE MISSING IN ACTIONS?


August 17, 2001

As the World Conference against racism, xenophobia, and related intolerance, scheduled to convene August 31, to September 7, in Durban, South Africa, nears, the criticism of it in some quarters grows more and more intense.

Put broadly, the purpose of the conference, approved by a United Nations resolution in 1997, is to examine the causes and contemporary manifestations of racism and intolerance, search out remedies for the wrongs, and develop strategies "to achieve full and effective equality" by eliminating racism around the globe.

Yes, that's a utopian notion-as was the expressed ideals for the founding of the United Nations itself a half-century ago. But what has brought the criticism has been the item on the conference agenda that allows for discussion of reparations for past racial wrongdoing in the United States and other countries.

Worried that America's hand will be forced by the court of international opinion and possibly even by international courts, some have urged the Bush Administration to boycott the conference altogether, or send a low-level delegation in order to indicate it doesn't consider the conference significant. But the Administration should not make such a serious mistake.

It, and the critics of the Durban Conference, need to pay attention to the winds of history. These are issues that must be faced. The time for that reckoning has come, and the United States must be involved in helping insure that those questions are framed and discussed in the right way.

Given the two most dramatic examples of racial liberation in our lifetime-in South Africa, and here in the United States-how can anyone think taking the "ostrich position" toward the Durban Conference is going to do any good?

At America's birth, its white majority declared that America could exist "half-slave and half-free." That perverse contradiction led to the Civil War. Later, via the Supreme Court's infamous Plessy decision of 1896, the white majority stripped black Americans of their "inalienable" rights in order to reserve all the opportunity of America for themselves.

That diabolical regime lasted for seventy years-the formative years of modern America-until, after great struggle, African Americans forced their claim to citizenship back on the national agenda. But even as late as the spring of 1963 some white politicians and commentators were braying that legal segregation would last "forever." Such hubris was even more evident for a longer time in South Africa, where as late as 1976-when Nelson Mandela was 15 years into a life sentence on Robyn Island-the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa seemed completely defeated and sage commentators the world over were declaring that apartheid there would last until 2050.

But, have we forgotten that even in those moments the winds of change were already swirling over those places?

In Birmingham in May of 1963, when city officials unleashed the police dogs and fire hoses on the nonviolent marchers, the world soon realized that show of brutal force was actually one of the Civil Rights Era's most dramatic signs that legal segregation was crumbling.

In South Africa in 1976, when the authorities brutally suppressed the first Soweto uprising, which had come seemingly out of nowhere, many thought that had finished the liberation movement. Later, the world would realize that it had finished apartheid itself.

One point of considering this recent history is recognizing that just because some declare business can continue as usual does not mean it will. In the United States of the 1960s and the South Africa of the 1970s forces beyond human control had brought the issues to the point of reckoning. So it is with the issues of the Durban Conference.

Consider reparations: Up to even three years ago, it was dismissed out-of-hand by mainstream media commentators. Now it is not. Now those opposed to reparations have to devote more and more "ink" to it. My point isn't to debate the issue here, although I believe the argument for reparations is morally and legally compelling. My point is that it's undeniable the issue has been "put" on the national and international agenda. We have to begin to discuss it and other issues of racism and intolerance around the globe, be it in Rwanda or the Balkans.

America's sticking its head in the sand isn't going to make the issues disappear. Nor will a petulant show of contempt. Ask the old-time segregationists of the American South and South Africa.

The wisest course is for the United States to be present and accounted for in Durban-with a delegation led by Secretary of State Colin Powell. Then, they could forthrightly challenge the proponents of views that are wrong-such as the one equating Zionism with racism. Surely, the U.S. is self-confident enough and wily enough from its years of negotiating tense international conflicts to navigate the ideological debates in Durban.

More positively, though still a work in progress on race relations, America has much to teach other nations-and much to learn from them. America must stand and be counted with the world leaders around the globe who declare by their presence that racism and xenophobia are wrong.

By Hugh B. Price

TBWT Contributor

Submitted by Minister Malik Al-Arkam

http://www.afre-ngo.org

[The LawKeepers, Co. wrote to Former President Clinton for six years, and he never once addressed any of the Black issues that keep us second-class citizens. Now, maybe the Blacks in Harlem are in a position to be more successful. But I’m of the conviction that one can’t get compassion from a Turnip or from a White person who could care less about the plight of Blacks in America. T.Y., Editor]

*********

THE REPARATIONS EDUCATION AND MOBILIZATION CONFERENCE

IS HOLDING PLANNING MEETINGS BEFORE THE NOVEMBER 2-4, CONFERENCE

PLEASE, BROTHERS AND SISTERS, LEND YOUR EXPERTISE TO PLANNING AND ORGANIZING FOR REPARATIONS NOW IN OUR LIFETIME:

 

PLACE:

The Brecht Forum

122 W. 27th Street, 10th Floor

New York City

TIME: 6:30 P.M.

CONTACT: ebontek@earthlink.net

We are making great progress in our plans to have a large turnout for our Nov 2-4 conference at City College. However, if you add your energies, we will have even more of a guarantee for a big successful launching of the necessary education and mobilization efforts to make Black Reparations a concrete reality.

Remember: In the next few weeks, we will be updating our website:

<http://www.murchisoncenter.org/reparations>.

In addition, if you have important information and Reparations announcements, you can post at our site. We also will need the updated Call and Conference Agenda translated into Portuguese, French and Spanish for the site. So, if you know any of the respective languages, please contact us at this email address: (ebontek@earthlink.net).

In Struggle,

Sam E. Anderson

The Reparations Mobilization Coalition

 

*********

*****MARK YOUR CALENDAR OF EVENTS*****

SUNDAY REPARATIONS MEETINGS

Muhammad Mosque of Islam in Boston, Massachusetts invites you to attend weekly meetings each Sunday at the Dillaway located at:

183 Roxbury Street

Roxbury, Massachusetts

(Next to the Timilty School, in Roxbury)

Meetings start at 2:00 PM, but on the last Sunday of the month we start at 1:00 PM.

For more information and to schedule free lectures on Reparations at your church, school, business or organization, feel welcome to telephone Minister Malik Al-Arkam at (617) 770-2017.

*********

STARTING August 21, 2001 (Tuesday) FOR FIVE (5) DAYS

REPARATIONS YES - MOVEMENT

Announces Historical Nation-Wide Petition Campaign

The Five-day Kickoff Petition Drive will take place at:

T&T Soul Food Restaurant

1505 Eastern Avenue

Capitol Heights, Maryland, from 6 a.m. till 6 pm beginning August 21st.

CONTACT:

Ms. Clara Peoples

503-287-7532

Ms. Lisa Clay

503-284-6152

Dr. Saharra L. Bledsoe

202 783-3705

E-mail: MzWayMaker@aol.com

or call 503-287-7532 or 202 783 3705

***

The Reparations - Yes International Petition

Drive Web Site is Up and Running!

Please go to www.unity4theworld.com and sign the petition Today!

Also the offline petition drive located at T & T soul food Carry Out 1505 Eastern Avenue, Capitol Heights, Maryland will be going on Today,

August 24, until 3 a.m.... (or I’ll see you Saturday)

So, come on out sign the petition and get some Great Soul Food!

Remember we are trying to secure 50 Thousand signatures from each state and foreign country, every signature counts, including yours!

*********

FREE THE MIND... FREE THE PEOPLE... FREE THE LAND

THE NATIONAL COALITION OF BLACKS FOR

 

REPARATIONS IN AMERICA (N’COBRA)

*********

August 31, 2001 - September 7, 2001

THE LEGACY OF THE BLACK POWER MOVEMENT

AND

THE UNITED NATIONS WORLD CONFERENCE AGAINST RACISM

The December 12th Movement, based in New York, and The National Black United Front (NBUF) are co-sponsoring a Black Power conference in support of the United Nations World Conference Against Racism.

The United Nations World Conference Against Racism will be held in Durbin, South Africa from August 31, 2001 - September 7, 2001.

By Dr. Conrad W. Worrill

***


YOU MUST BE IN SOUTH AFRICA NEXT AUGUST 2001!

 

To All Concerned African People:

 

The United Nations' World Conference against Racism begins August 31, 2001 in Durban, South Africa. The December 12th Movement International Secretariat is seeking you to be a part of the Delegation of 400 African people to South Africa in support of two crucial issues:

 

1) Declaration of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade as a Crime against Humanity

2) Reparations for Africans in the Diaspora and on the Continent.
   

Malcolm X said that we must put our situation on the international agenda, in the international arena. We must be there in a massive presence to defend our human rights.


Join us, if you want to go to Durban in support of these issues. The application is included in the text of this message, as well as an attached document in .rtf format.


Costs:
We estimate that the total cost for the trip (the Conference is from August 31, to September 7), i.e., travel, lodging and meals, will be approximately $2500.  If you are planning to go we need a deposit of $250.00 immediately.

We, along with the National Black United Front, are working with a Black Travel Agency based in Chicago which has already made airline travel arrangements to and reserved blocks of hotel rooms in Durban. Your check or money order should be made out to AARCO TRAVEL AND TOURS and should be sent to the:

December 12th Movement

456 Nostrand Avenue

Brooklyn, NY 11216

For more information on the World Conference against Racism and the struggle to defend the human rights of African people, contact us at:


Telephone #718-398-1766
Fax #623-1855
E-mail: D12M


IF YOU WISH TO GO TO SOUTH AFRICA, PLEASE FILL OUT THE FORM BELOW.

APPLICATION FORM FOR THE DURBAN 400

NAME:

ADDRESS

PHONE :

FAX:

E-MAIL:

ORGANIZATIONAL AFFILIATION (if any):


YES: I want to be a member of the Durban 400.  Enclosed is my check in the
amount of $_______________.


_____________________________________________________________
NAME

*********

August 31, 2001

INTERNATIONAL DAY OF ACTION AGAINST RACISM (IDAAR)

IS AUGUST 31, 2001

The New Panther Vanguard Movement (NPVM) is taking the initiative locally to propose a local activity to be organized in conjunction with, and supportive of, this Call For an International Day of Action Against Racism. There is not much time to organize such an activity, so we are calling for the immediate formation of a local IDAAR Organizing Committee to plan, coordinate and mobilize, a local protest for August 31, 2001

For more information call Kwaku at (323) 296-4383 or (323) 290 6146 or email Kwaku@globalpanther.com

Remember to share the UN WCAR Petition http://www.unwcarpetition.homestead.com

Where there's activism up here,

Tammy Lee

Black Web Guide

http://www.newmediacoop.com

Also CONTACT:

tammylee@successnet.net (Tammy Lee)

tammyleecoop@hotmail.com (tleecoop)

 

*********

October 19/20, 2001

PHILOSOPHY BORN OF STRUGGLE CONFERENCE ON

RACE, REPARATIONS, AND RESTITUTION

Place: Brown University

CONTACT:

J. Everet Green

HUMANITAS 3000

37 Old Oregon Road

Cortlandt Manor

New York, New York 10567

*********

 

October 19, 20, 21, 2001

THE AFRIKAN DIASPORA NATION STATE CONFERENCE

We need to practice Ujima (Collective Work and Responsibility) and send in early Registration Fees and Donations to pay for this Kujichagulia (Self Determined) conference, through Ujamaa (Cooperative Economics). Pan Afrikan Black Nationalist have for scores of decades developed Kummba and held on to Imani. Now the time has come to practice what we have organized around. Umoja and Self Determination "By any means necessary." Or Are you spewing rhetoric without substance?

"Idle words....make for idle minds... creating idle bodies..... Power to the people.....

Hotels / Motels:

Best Western

1800 Palm Beach Lakes Blvd.

West Palm Beach, Fl. 33401

(561) 683-8810

Group rate 15 rms. - $ 52. + tax

 

DAYS INN

2300 45th. Street

West Palm Beach. Fl.33407

(561) 689-0450 (Kate Riley)

Group rate 10 rms. - $49. + tax (single or double)

 

Crown Plaza

1601 Belvedere Rd.

West Palm Beach, Fl. 33406

(561)689-6400

No Group rate available at this time * $99. Single $119. suites + tax

 

All rooms are within five (5) miles of conference site. Transportation will be provided by schedule to and from Hotel / Motel stops. The conference space will be centrally located to all motels. Some motels will set aside at least ten (10) rooms for our conference and will provide group rates as we meet the group room minimum. You must make your own motel reservations. Ask for shuttle service from the airport, bus, or train stations. Please REGISTER EARLY for the conference. Your Registration Fee will all go toward conference expenses. Don’t forget to let advise us of where you intend to stay.

Registrations Form (copy and return via E-mail):

 

AFRICAN NATION DIASPORA STATE CONFERENCE

AFRIKAN NATION STATE PRE-REGISTRATION FORM

Name____________________________ Phone #______ _____________________

 

Address __________________________ Country___________________________

 

City______________________________ State____ District./Region_____________

 

Organization Affiliations________________________________________________

 

I (We) will staying at: __________________________________________________

 

$40 Registration Fee Enclosed __ Yes __ No

 

Donation Included $_______

Please make Checks and Money Orders Payable to: Robert Hazard. Send all mail to the following address * Mawusi c/o Robert Hazard * P.O. Box 2186 * West Palm Beach, Fl. 33402. For information and assistance call Robert Mawusi Hazard at (561) 881-8298. Round trip transportation from the motels to the conference will be scheduled.

CONTACT: RHazard988

*********

November 2 - 4, 2001

 

THE REPARATIONS EDUCATION AND MOBILIZATION CONFERENCE

 

MORE DETAILS ARE FORTHCOMING.

In the Struggle,

Sam E. Anderson

The Reparations Mobilization Coalition

CONTACT: ebontek@earthlink.net

*********

November 28 – December 2, 2001

THE "STATE OF THE BLACK WORLD" CONFERENCE

Convenes in Atlanta November 28 – December 2, 2001 at the Georgia International Convention Center.

"A set of goals and objectives have been outlined," he said. "We hope to identify, analyze and discuss the critical crises and issues facing Black people. We also hope to provide some sort of leadership and skill development training to enhance our collective capacity to engage the struggle for liberation."

"Our agenda also includes discussion of meaningful definitions of liberation and reconstruction, intensifying the global movement for reparations and working towards the convening of an International Black Arts and Cultural Festival,"

For more information, call 1-866-ATL-SOBW or visit www.TBWT.com

*********

BOOK LISTINGS

The book listing on Reparations and Black History can be found in REPNOW Newsletters 1 - 5.

***

KHALIFAH'S BOOKSELLERS & ASSOCIATES

Producers & Disseminators of the Literature that is Finally Freeing Afrikan People:

"Those at Home and those abroad!"

www.KBAbooks.com

*********

RUNAWAY SLAVES

Book Review

Runaway Slaves addresses the still widely held belief that, in the slave system of the United States of America, "slaves were generally content, that racial violence on the plantation was an aberration, and that the few who ran away struck out for the Promised Land in the North or Canada" (p. xv). Throughout Runaway Slaves, John Hope Franklin and Loren Schweninger stress that the majority of slaves in the United States fought the system and their white oppressors. Moreover, they lived under constant threats of physical and mental violence and were conditioned to respond in kind. Furthermore, slaves ran away in great numbers, and when they ran they did not necessarily go North. In fact, they more often ran to places where they had relatives or loved ones.

The book is well-organized, with chapters describing everyday acts of rebellion, reasons for running, how they tried to keep their families together, their reasons for becoming violent, how they planned escapes, and where and how they hid.

Moreover, the book details how the slaveholders hunted fugitives, what happened to the slaves once they were taken back into bondage, and how the slaveholders attempted to manage their human property. The authors attach seven appendices, including advertisements, petitions, tables of locations and destinations of runaways, and examples of correspondence. Almost one hundred pages of notes detail the sources.

Franklin and Schweninger undertake a detailed analysis of hundreds of newspaper articles, advertisements, and court documents in order to establish many of the "facts" of life in slavery, as well as a foundation for the tenor of relations between blacks and whites. Their analysis of these documents addresses a gap in contemporary scholarship on slavery, which has focused on slave narratives, diaries of slave planters, and plantation records. In fact, the authors assert that newspapers and court documents have their own "unique strengths" as primary source materials. For instance, masters advertising for the return of their runaways "had little reason to misinform their readers and every reason to be as precise as possible" (p. 295). They gave graphic physical descriptions of the runaways and their known connections around the country. Moreover, court petitioners suing for release from slavery "realized that it behooved them to be as forthright and candid as possible" (p. 295). These petitioners often had nothing to hide, because all the community knew their circumstances; furthermore, presenting the facts in graphic detail could possibly sway the verdict their way. Therefore, contemporary white notions of slaves and black resistance to slavery are well-represented in these documents.

The bits and pieces of stories that the authors put together from the fragments of newspaper clippings and runaway notices are remarkable. This technique, however, can be a bit confusing when several different notices or runaways are mentioned in the same paragraph. Moreover, the reader may become intrigued by the ways a particular slave rebelled and wish to know more about that particular individual. The downfall of writing from advertisements is that, in most cases, one never does know what happened to the person in question. This narrative angst, of course, only replicates to a small degree the terrible anxiety that the friends and family of the slave must have felt. For as Franklin and Schweninger make clear, slave families often did not know where their loved ones had fled. They also understood very well the penalties inflicted upon captured runaways. For example, slave owners often contracted professional slave catchers with dogs to chase their runaways. One plantation owner admitted to using such methods: the catcher's dogs treed the man and pulled him out of the tree. The owner then had the dogs bite "him badly, think[ing] he will stay home a while" (p. 161).

In addition to detailing the reasons and the methods of those who ran, the authors "seek to analyze the motives and responses of the slaveholding class and other whites" (p. xv). To this end, they have detailed the owners' announcements about runaways, their rewards for apprehending the slaves, and their discussions of the tribulations that pursuing the runaways caused. The results of this analysis are telling. Masters were often incensed that trusted slaves ran away without "any unjust or injurious treatment" and they would pursue those slaves until the time and expense became overwhelming (p. 169).

Franklin and Schweninger have done a thorough job reading runaway advertisements and court cases "against the grain" to determine the possible reasons why the slaves ran away and committed other crimes. For instance, they claim that "fear, anxiety, retaliation, frustration, anger, and hatred propelled slaves toward violence" (p. 79). When slaves ran, they often took more of their owner's property than just themselves. The owners described every item stolen. One runaway called Jerry took with him "a 'considerable quantity' of clothes, 'an aged sorrel horse,' a pistol, and eighty dollars in cash" (p. 145). A slave named Sam left wearing "a green frock coat with a black velvet collar, blue pants, a high-crown black hat; he carried with him a black leather trunk containing a variety of other clothing, including a reddish frock coat with a velvet collar, a green cloth coat and a white hat" (p. 80). What this detailing makes clear is the slaves' understanding that anything preventing them from acquiring material and intellectual resources was the basis of their continued enslavement. When they absconded, they took some of the materials that could help make them free.

Runaway Slaves does well in discounting the popular myth that slaves were docile and cowered in the face of white oppression. In fact, as Franklin and Schweninger show, a great deal of violence was inflicted upon slaves, and the slaves reacted in kind. The authors establish that "most of the violence was spontaneous, and most of it was directed against whites-owners, members of the owner's family, overseers" (p. 77). In nearly every Southern state, slaves were indicted for killing their owners or members of their owner's family. For this reason in particular, Runaway Slaves is a valuable resource for undergraduate courses dealing with slavery, as undergraduates often come to this subject with "romantic, Gone with the Wind" notions of the peculiar institution. Moreover, the authors cite all the primary sources they use, making this book a valuable resource for those interested in archival research on slave narratives, slave codes, and African American history.

Samantha Manchester Earley

Department of English

Indiana University Southeast

searley@ius.edu

http://www.africa.ufl.edu/asq/v4/v4i3a11.htm

African Studies Quarterly

Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation. John Hope Franklin

and Loren Schweninger. New York: Oxford University Press,

1999. Pp. 455. Cloth: $35.00.

Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca

*********

A FILM CALLED INJUSTICE

August 7, 2001

'Every time we try to show this film, solicitors for the police try to stop us. And every time, I age about five

years.'

Filmmaker Tariq Mehmood is 'bloody fuming'. Having spent six years co-producing and co-directing Injustice - a documentary about deaths in police custody - he now watches as it gets chased out of cinemas across the UK. The film was a roaring success at the Human Rights Watch International Film Festival in April 2001, showing to packed audiences at the Ritzy cinema in Brixton, London - but screening it since then has been 'next to impossible', says Mehmood: 'I never thought it would be so hard to get a film shown in a cinema.'

Injustice documents deaths in UK police custody over a six-year period, highlighting some pretty gruesome stories: like Shiji Lapite, who died from 'asphyxia from compression of the neck' after being stopped by police in December 1994; Brian Douglas, who died in May 1995 after being hit across the head by a new American-style baton; Ibrahima Sey, who died in March 1996 after being sprayed repeatedly with CS gas; and Joy Gardner, who died in 1993 after police used tape to restrain her.

What some police object to is that the film names serving officers, who it suggests were involved in the incidents that led to deaths. Solicitors representing the officers have threatened legal action if the film is shown. 'They haven't even seen the film', says Mehmood. 'They're just going on press reports and reviews, and saying, oh you're naming officers, you can't do that. Yes, we do name officers - and in fact we show some of them too. But we're not ashamed of it and we stand by it 100 percent. Our message is clear: stop bullying us, get off our backs, and let people watch the film.'

There isn't much chance of that. On Friday 6 July 2001, the filmmakers organised a big screening at the Metro cinema in London's Leicester Square, due to be attended by families and friends of some of the victims featured in the film, and by an 'assortment of ambassadors and foreign embassy officials'. But the Metro pulled the plug at the last minute.

'About 18 minutes before the screening was due to start', says Mehmood, 'solicitors representing the police officers threatened the manager of the cinema with legal action. Eighteen minutes! The cinema didn't have time to seek legal advice or even to think about it, so they just pulled the film. And remember, all the families and friends are there and they're desperate to see this film, to see their own stories, and suddenly it's canceled. People were crying and shouting and protesting in the cinema foyer - it was very tense.'

Next, the filmmakers tried Conway Hall run by the Ethical Society in Holborn, London - 'believing them to be very strong supporters of freedom of speech'. But support for free speech was in short supply on Wednesday 11 July, when, once again, the screening was disrupted at the last minute.

'The same thing happened', says Mehmood: 'About 15 minutes before the film was due to start, Conway Hall management started getting faxes from the solicitors representing the officers. The management came into the hall where the film was being shown and opened the windows, opened all the skylights, switched on the lights, to try and stop people from being able to see the screen. They tried to close the projector down and for a bit it ran on sound only. It was outrageous.'

But after their experience at the Metro cinema a week earlier, the audience had had enough. 'Some of the audience went ballistic', says Mehmood. 'They took over the electricity room so that the power couldn't be shut down, somebody called the police, and that's when the audience barricaded themselves into the hall so they could continue watching the film.'

Mehmood was 'really shocked' by Conway Hall's response, but he doesn't hold them 'ultimately responsible': 'They just succumbed to pressure. The big conflict is not with them, but with the Police Federation [which is supporting the individual officers].'

Then, on 24 July 2001, the Metropolitan Police Authority (MPA) asked for a private viewing. Mehmood agreed, because 'we have no objections to anybody watching our film - we just wish more people could see it'. And even the MPA - not known for being a defender of free speech - criticised the Police Federation for its tactics. 'The Police Federation have got to grow up', said Lord Toby Harris, head of the MPA. 'There are serious issues at stake; we want to see what is on the film and to see whether there are issues that need to be examined further.' (1) It is coming to something when New Labour Lord Toby Harris - who has suggested banning far-right groups like the National Front and warned that plastic bullets could be used against anti-capitalist protesters - criticises the police for trying to shut down debate.

Two days later, on 26 July 2001, Injustice was due to be screened at the Cornerhouse cinema in Manchester - but guess what? It was pulled at the last minute. It was slotted in for 6.05pm, but at 4pm the cinema's press office announced that it had been 'postponed until further notice'.

According to the Police Federation, cinemas have a choice about whether or not to show Injustice - and the solicitors representing the individual officers have merely offered the cinemas advice. 'No injunctions have been taken out preventing the screening of the film', says the Police Federation. 'Solicitors acting on behalf of a number of officers have written to cinemas and halls pointing out that they may be liable to action should the film be found to be defamatory. They were informed it was a matter for them whether they chose to show the film and were invited to satisfy themselves they were justified in screening something which may defame those individuals featured.'

So where does all this leave free speech? Mehmood laughs. 'Free speech? This is an outrage against free speech. And what a dangerous precedent - if they succeed with us, what about other journalists who want to be critical of the police? Will they have to get police permission first?'

'People might say this is just one incident, just one film', says Mehmood. 'But it's dangerous for everybody when these things happen - and we mustn't allow it to go on.'

By Brendan O'Neill

Spiked (UK)

http://www.spiked-online.com/Articles/00000002D1DB.htm

Submitted by brc-news@lists.tao.ca

[I could say, "Welcome to the club," but Blacks face RACISM and INJUSTICE all over this globe. T.Y., Editor]

 

*********

WE SHALL WIN THIS WAR!

Imari A. Obadele

*********

"Without Sanctuary"

The web address for Without Sanctuary" is listed in the REPNOW Newsletter #13.

Please pass this information on to others for it is out of…

AMERICA'S SHAME: CONTEMPT & THE LYNCHINGS

James Allen’s photos on the lynchings of Blacks in America

*********

See a wide range of E-mail Addresses & WebSites on REPARATIONS in the REPNOW Issue #13.

*********

A WISE LIBERATION MOVEMENT USES

BROAD RANGE OF TACTICS

Minister Malik Al-Arkam

Boston Representative of the

Honorable Silis Muhammad

www.afre-ngo.org

 

*********

JOIN THE BLACK REPARATIONS MOVEMENT TODAY !

IT IS A WIN, WIN CASE FOR US!

Oscar L. Beard

*********

Stay strong in the struggle; we will win!

Dejoser

**********

Hotep,

I am Gregory Carey, Founder and President of Reparations Central, an online reparations searchable database. We would like for you to view our website that is in the development stage at http://www.reparationscentral.com

We are also attempting to unify and centralize the reparations movement. We are looking for other organizations that are doing reparations work to put on our website. Also, we are asking every organization to consider putting an audio/video presentation on our website. This website is the hub of the reparations movement worldwide. We need your support and help to make this reparations clearinghouse a successful venture.

In Struggle,

Aluta Continua Asante Sana

*********

HOW CAN I SUPPORT THE REPARATIONS MASS MOVEMENT?

1.) I suggest that you approach the city in which you reside for reparations, support for reparations, or information as to how to obtain reparations. Your strategy may be a model we all may benefit from at the local level.

2.) Next, demonstrate your willingness to join others in the struggle for reparations.

3.) I would hope that you join or start an N’COBRA chapter in your locale area (if there is none) and become an active and energetic member/reparations information resource, for your Afrikan brothers and sisters.

Submitted by R. Hazard, N’COBRA

*********

 

"Together We shall Win REPARATIONS NOW!!!"

Free Your Mind - Join N’COBRA.... Free The People.... Free The Land...

Robert Hazard

S.E. Regional Rep. N’COBRA

*********

"If you are thinking one year ahead, sow a seed.

if you thinking ten years ahead, plant a tree.

If you thinking one hundred years ahead ...

educate the people."

A Manchurian Proverb

Compliments of Shakira A. Ali

*********

Up You Mighty Race; We Can Accomplish What We Will!!!!

I Remain to Serve,

Senghor Baye

*********

INTERESTING INFORMATION OF SIGNIFICANCE AND FYI:

BLACKS, JEWS FOUND STILL TO HAVE RIFTS

August 16, 2001

"Despite improved relations over the past decade, African-Americans and Jews remain sharply divided on a number of issues, including reparations for the descendants of slaves, according to a survey released yesterday."

Reparations for slavery said to be an issue

Despite improved relations over the past decade, African-Americans and Jews remain sharply divided on a number of issues, including reparations for the descendants of slaves, according to a survey released yesterday.

The poll, conducted for The Foundation for Ethnic Understanding, a nonprofit group based in New York City that seeks to promote better relations between blacks and Jews, found that 58 percent of 500 Jews interviewed did not support the idea of the federal government compensating blacks for the enslavement of their ancestors. Among the African-Americans surveyed, 62 percent favored reparations.

Some African-Americans have argued that reparations for slavery would be similar to payments made to Jews by Germany's government, and German companies, to compensate for their role in the Holocaust. But the poll suggests that the analogy has not been accepted by most Jews.

''I find it ironic that so many Jews are opposed to reparations, since they received more reparations in the last 50 years than any other group,'' said Raymond A. Winbush, director of the Race Relations Institute at Fisk University, a historically black college in Nashville.

Rabbi Marc Schneier, founder of The Foundation for Ethnic Understanding, said that the level of support for reparations among Jews has more to do with the inability of the black community to ''articulate a clear position on the issue.''

''If you were to ask me about Holocaust restitution, we in the Jewish community have a general consensus and agreement on the issue,'' he said. ''Reparations is still in its formative stages and we don't know how to react or respond. It is also not on everyone's radar screen and has not become an issue like affirmative action and voter disenfranchisement.''

The survey appears to indicate that Jews may be, in fact, less opposed to reparations and an apology for slavery than are other white Americans. A 1997 survey conducted by a different pollster found that two-thirds of whites opposed an apology and that 88 percent were against paying reparations.

On whether the government should make a formal apology for having legalized slavery, Jews were almost evenly divided, with 46 percent in favor and 45 percent opposed. Blacks supported a government apology by a wide margin, 72 percent to 20 percent.

''There is a significant difference between the two groups over whether blacks should receive reparations from the federal government, and Jews are split and blacks are not on whether the federal government should issue a formal apology on slavery,'' said Jeffrey Plaut, a pollster for Global Strategy Group, a New York firm that conducted the interviews from July 26 to Aug. 1.

The survey was released on the 10-year anniversary of the riots between blacks and Jews that engulfed the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn. Results of the poll, which posed questions on a range of issues affecting black-Jewish relations, have a margin of error of 6 percentage points.

Other findings included:

Among Jews, 57 percent said that children do not learn enough about slavery in school. The figure among African-Americans was 70 percent.

Sixty percent of Jews said that children do not learn enough about the Holocaust in school, compared with 48 percent among African-Americans.

Fifty-two percent of Jews said that former Al Gore's choice of Joseph I. Lieberman as the Democratic nominee for vice president had helped to break down barriers for other minorities, while 44 percent of blacks agreed with that statement.

''In many ways, it is difficult to sum up the relationship between African-Americans and Jews,'' said Rob Leikind, executive director of the Anti-Defamation League of New England.

''When we perceive common interests, we work well together,'' he said, ''but when our interests have been different, sometimes we have disagreements, and that's not the worst thing in the world.''

''I think there's a good deal of evidence that there has been a lot of progress and shared understanding over the years,'' said Plaut, the pollster. ''But there are clearly some flashpoints.''

By Jamal E. Watson

Globe Staff

  1. mail: jawatson@globe.com

http://www.boston.com/dailyglobe2/228/nation/Blacks_Jews_found_still_to_have_rifts+.shtml

***

For the past six years I have supplied the Globe's managing editor and several of its writers with detailed, verifiable information about the international legal battle for Reparations, including the interventions of the Honorable Silis Muhammad which started in 1998. The author of this article, Mr. Watson, has also been supplied with information for some months, since I became aware that he joined the Globe staff. However, the Globe has never given any coverage to these interventions. In suppressing this vital aspect of the battle for justice, the Globe is doing a great dis-service to its readers and to the African-American people.

Submitted by by alarkam@webtv.net (Malik Al-Arkam)

[Let Rabbi Marc Schneier ask me my "position" on the Reparations issue and why it is that even White "Jews" should pay Blacks for the Black Holocaust that not only gave White folks a legacy but that also made them the privileged characters in this World.]

***

"AMERICA’S ORIGINAL SIN:

THE MYTH OF BLACK INFERIORITY"

America's Original Sin: The Myth of Black Inferiority

Vic Varis, Portland State University March 18, 1996

The past two years have been a journey of discovery and change for me. This paper written for the class, Social, Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education as an Institution, is somewhat a major milemarker in my life. I've put quite a bit of thought into my topic. Still it's been tough to define the parameters of my project. Mentally, I'm striving to put together many pieces of information, thought, revelation and critical evaluation-- to sort through and understand the changes which are precipitating in my way of thinking and how I look at history.

This paper will examine racism in the United States in the context of the Protestant Reformation and the influence of the Puritan founders of our society. To do this, I will present a brief review of our Puritan heritage and discuss how it permeates our culture even to this day, having profoundly influenced education as well as our social and religious identity. This heritage is ironic in light of the title I've borrowed from Jim Wallis, editor of Sojourner who calls slavery or what I term, the myth of Black inferiority, "America's original sin." Wallis admonishes, "White America has yet to realize the extent of its racism... much less to repent of its racial sins" (Barnt, 1991). In addition to showing the relationship of Puritanism to the roots of American racism, I will discuss the "myth", consider the question, "If not inferior, then what?" and conclude with a reflection of how we might begin to respond to racism.

Admittedly, my paper will not be an extended critical examination of Puritanism and racism, or Puritanism and education. Rather I write under the assumption that Puritan founders tacitly melded racial superiority into the education system and also to religious life in America. In writing I will use the terms "African-American", "Black" and "of color" interchangeably. Where relevant to the historical context and cited textual use, I may use the more objectionable terms, "Negro" and "colored."

The Puritan Connection to Education, Our Culture and Slavery

Gaer and Siegel (1964) in The Puritan Heritage: America's Roots in the Bible state, "No nation has ever developed a stronger belief in education's magic powers than has America. Certainly no other country's educational history reflects more clearly the steady evolution of its social institutions, and the impact on them of its religions, beliefs and practices." They concisely show this effect or outcome during the years following the landing of the Puritan colonists. They imply the Puritans impact is intricately woven into the fabric of our institutions, whether we want it or not.

The Protestant Reformation and Martin Luther

The Puritans were products of the Protestant Reformation which in Germany with Martin Luther. It really was akin to a revolution. For centuries, through the Dark Ages, Europe had been dominated by a then corrupted Roman Catholic Church. Scriptures of the day were only translated into Latin, a language restricted to ministry and law and a few select others. To control masses of people, religious leaders would use their exclusive view of the Bible to motivate obedience and obtain finances, welding fear of excommunication and nurturing a unique dependence on the priest. The common person was forbidden to read Scripture even if they could understand the language.

Martin Luther rebelled against the manipulation and control and at the same time experienced a profound personal spiritual awakening new to him. His revelation of relationship with God being established "by faith and by faith alone" transformed his life and lit a flame for the common person who now joined his "protest and reform" by reading Scripture, for the first time translated into the people's language. These reformers became passionate and zealous enthusiasts of the written "Word of God." That passion carried on through the Puritan years.

Education to Reinforce Values, Behavior and Americanization

Education via a "catechism" was a cornerstone of Luther's influence on the Puritans It was incorporated as a key part of their agenda coming to America in the 17th century. They had a firm conviction that education would achieve their goal of creating the "city on a hill". The "city" was their belief as "God's chosen people" in establishing God's kingdom on earth. Education was the means to solve any problem. It could and would, mold and shape the world to their design, "re-formed in accordance with God's will" (Barnt, 1991; Ahlstrom, 1975; Gaer & Siegel, 1964).

In America, the Protestant school movement arose the result of a need to protect the orthodoxy of their beliefs. Joel Spring (1994) says, "The view that the roots of American public schools lie primarily in the Protestant church and New England has a profound impact on the history of education." He proposes the process reinforced "approved" behaviors of obedience, hard work and submission which supported the Protestant institution. In later years, even though the religious content was discontinued, the spirit was maintained. Os Guiness (1993) comments on the perceived power of education.

Public schools were to be a place to reconcile the spiritual divisiveness, born of creeds, and the social divisiveness born of class. The notion of the common vision for the common good is central to the character and purpose of American public schools... American education became the working equivalent of a European established church as well as the nation's chief agency for "Americanizing" and cultivating common citizenship and common republican virtues.

Unfortunately school became less a place of reconciliation and more a place of division; between class, gender as well as race. The Puritans encouraged much more than a zeal for education in America. As part of "God's sovereign plan and destiny" they required labor and capitol for the "chosen" economic institution as well. Ultimately this justified a self-perpetuating presence of the ultimate underclass, Africans who became the object of "America's original sin."

The Introduction of Slaves to America

The Protestant Reformation brought a new era of man pursuing a divinely mandated plan, a "manifest destiny." Before even arriving on the continent the destiny included "tirades against the Jews and the Turks" on behalf of zealous Protestants. Therefore, constructed into the foundation of the newly reformed church was the "ideological basis for nationalistic and racist excesses in Europe and in the United States that were yet to come... the Reformation's most tragic contribution to contemporary history." (Barnt, 1991)

Supremacy and servitude. From the first days in America, a "supremacy" ideologically and institutionally guided the young colony's choices. Puritan political views evolved out of deeply held convictions based on the Old Testament. Their theological base established a doctrine called "election," that they were actually God's "elect," the spiritual embodiment of "God's chosen people." Their interpretation of Scripture set them culturally above other nations and peoples. This fact combined with a commitment to fulfill their mission of creating God's chosen society, the "city on the hill," and the needed economic base led to the first slaves being introduced soon after 1619. Slaves were justified, through their faulty interpretation of Scripture, as part of a "heritage" for God's elect (Mathews, 1977; Evans, 1992; Ahlstrom, 1975; Knowles & Prewitt, 1969; Barnt, 1991).

John Saffin, a Puritan leader explained, "God has ordained different decrees and orders of men, some to be High-Honorable, some to be Low-Despicable... yea, some to be born slaves, and so to remain during their lives, as hath been proved..." He reasoned if "parity" or equality is true for all men- slave and free, then God and his order are "wrong and unjust." (Mathews, 1977).

Opposing voices of slavery. While a great many Puritans, Calvinists and other religious leaders supported slavery from the beginning and some were actually slave owners, there were dissenting voices. George Fox, the founder of the Quakers, in 1671 circulated a letter advising kind treatment of slaves and the reward of freedom after a period of service. As the years went by, the Quakers grew more determined and vocally opposed to slavery, becoming some of the first Abolitionists. (Mathews, 1977). The question we should all be asking is, "Beyond economics, why was slavery even a consideration?" The answer is found in a myth which began, probably unique, to America.

The Myth of Black Inferiority

Anthony T. Evans (1992) in his book, Are Blacks Spiritually Inferior to Whites?, defines myths as "traditions passed down over time in story form as means of explaining or justifying events that are either lacking scientific evidence or historical basis..." He suggests, as a myth is accepted, it influences every area of society's life: education, politics, religion and economics. The myth begins to authenticate itself.

The entire pro-slavery movement was based on a belief in Negro inferiority. Thomas Jefferson said, "I advance it therefore as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstance, are inferior to the whites in the endowments of body and mind." He stated on another occasion he felt the Negro "lacked native ability for the larger pursuits of civilization..." (Jefferson, 1801; Jenkins, 1960). Another slavery proponent said, "Black people are incapable of self-government..." whereas, whites' skill at "organization and government are the sovereign tendencies of our race." (Knowles & Prewitt, 1969). There was a firm conviction that black people were biologically and spiritually different and inferior than whites.

Stilling the Chords of Conscience

Slavery doesn't sit right in our spirit. We have to make a deliberate choice to close out our feelings or conscience to accept it. From the beginning, these "chords of conscience" sounded out in the hearts of men. Thomas Jefferson spent no small amount of time agonizing and pondering the implications of our country's actions. Publicly he would declare "immoral servitude" be "immoral and unjust." At one point almost prophetically he imagined the worst,

Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just: that his justice cannot sleep for ever: that considering numbers, nature and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an exchange of situation is among possible events: that it may become probable by supernatural interference! The almighty has no attribute which can tale side with us in such a contest. (Thompson, 1971)

Though he "hated" slavery, many times language within the great documents of our nation were compromised to placate slaveholding states. He couldn't renounce slavery and his conviction that the black man was not truly human. In the end he died holding 180 slaves, allowing very few freedom even within his Will. (Thompson, 1971).

 

Physiology of the Negro

The sheer madness of the injustice drove men to seek means to justify and rationalize their actions. Scientists, politicians and theologians of the day all conspired to build an "apologetic" for the inferiority myth. The primary defense was based on science and theology (Nida, 1954).

Natural scientists such as Samuel George Norton studied physiological fields like "craniology" postulating the Negro was inferior based on their brain being "smaller and lighter" than a caucasians'. Luis Agassiz suggested,

A peculiar conformation characterizes the brain of an adult Negro. Its development never gets beyond that observable in the Caucasian in boyhood. And, besides other singularities, it bears a striking resemblance, in several particulars to the brain of an ourangoutang [sic]. (Jenkins, 1960)

Fore-runner of natural selection. To a slave-holder, holding a "common origins" theory such as the Bible offered was repugnant. They chose to suggest the first proposals that man originated from a plurality of sources. This thinking contributed to later natural evolution theory.

A perpetual slave race. This "scientific" foundation for inferiority of the Negro and "superiority" for the White man didn't come from an emotional argument froth with calls for "white supremacy," rather it emerged out of a conviction this was part of nature's "well ordered plan." Archaeologists began to rewrite their appraisals of famous ancient cultures such as Egypt and Ethiopia, convinced the sheer weight of their accomplishment required the civilization to be a "white" people. Ethnologists, hypothesized that the Negroes were a perpetual slave race as supported by Egyptian pictographs. Abolitionists countered, referencing descriptions of the Egyptians by early historian Herodotus who said all Egyptians were of "black complexion and woolly haired." (Jenkins, 1960; Evans, 1992) Jenkins (1960) summarizes in "The Ethnological Justification of Slavery,"

The problem in constructing the ethnological defense, therefore, was a problem of verification and substantiation of inferiority belief. It was necessary to demonstrate that the faculties of the Negro, as compared with those of the Saxon, qualified him for a state of servitude and made him unfit for the enjoyment of freedom. The ethnologist argued that slavery needed no other justification, excuse or apology than proof that the Negro race was weak and imperfectly developed in mind and body and, therefore, belonged to a lower order of man. One of them freely admitted that "if this be not true, American slavery is a monstrous wickedness."

The Theology of Inferiority

Equal diligence was given by pro-slavery theologians of the day. Generally Southern theology was more literal and linear than Northern theology. While the northern abolitionist would advocate, based on the balance of the whole Scripture for their interpretations, the slavery group followed Puritan thought, literally applying Old Testament examples of slavery to their cause. Following their "natural science" counterparts, theologians pronounced the Negro inferiority a theological result of the curse on Noah's son Ham (Genesis 9:20-27).

The curse of Ham. The Bible provides this account following the Flood where one of Noah's three sons, Ham, walks in on his father's "nakedness." What actually happened is not mentioned, but it was severe enough that Noah pronounced a curse. In Hebrew culture, to curse his son would have been equal to pronouncing a curse on himself, so he it applied toward Ham's son Canaan. The judgment levied on Canaan for his father's indiscretion was to live in "servitude" to his brothers. Some proponents of black inferiority declared that part of the curse included a "conferring of blackness". However, all black peoples trace their Biblical roots to Ham which includes three other sons who weren't cursed, but actually "blessed" by God and are connected Biblically to the nations Egypt (Mirraim), Lybia (Put) and Ethiopia (Cush) today. (Evans, 1992; Banks, 1972; Fowler, 1991, McKissick, 1990).

In any case, slavery proponents argued "since Ham was the father of the Black people and since his descendants were cursed to be slaves... then Africans and their descendants are destined to be servants, and should accept their status in fulfillment of biblical prophecy." (Evans, 1992; also Mathews, 1977, Jenkins, 1960). Jenkins explains how they used interpretation to establish their case,

The theory ran into the difficulty of establishing the connection between the curse and the Negro race... Etymology aided those attempting to establish the connection. Dr. S.S. Cartwright of Mississippi contended that the Biblical names were all prophetic, that Ham meant "the progenitor of hot and black," and that Canaan meant "the self-submissive knee bender."...the second difficulty arose in the fact the curse was delivered only upon Canaan. This was explained on the ground that Canaan was mentioned to denote all of Ham's posterity, as it was the conduct of Ham in disrespect of Noah that had offended..."

Discrediting the curse. Contemporary scholars point out, the other three sons were "blessed" as seen by their posterity as nations today, while Canaan is the only son not connected to a contemporary nation or people. Also a biblical curse of this kind was of limited duration: three of four generations. Finally, God's character in the Old testament was to forgive and restore following repentance (Evans, 1992; Banks, 1972; McKissick, 1990).

A final shot at constructing the myth. Southern theologian Dr. Cartwright, here quoted by Jenkins (1960), writes about an even more insipid theory offered by the pro-slavers,

Fifty years ago, Dr. Adam Clark, the learned commentator of the Bible, from deep reading in the Hebrew, Arabic and Coptic languages, was forced to the conclusion that the creature which beguiled Eve was an animal formed like man, walked erect, and had the gift of speech and reason. He believed it was an ourangoutang [sic] and not a serpent. If he had lived in Louisiana, instead of England, he would have recognized the negro gardener.

Clark noted that the Hebrew word translated "serpent" was Nachesh and should have rightly been translated "Negro." No wonder Nation of Islaam calls us, the "white devils!" In this way the myth built its own credibility utilizing reason, science and theology. The message clearly was, "White power, white control and white superiority" are the natural order, the way things just are and how they should be (Barnt, 1991).

How the Inferiority Myth Was Perpetuated

Inherent Black inferiority was reinforced largely through education. As credible scholars of the day rendered findings, these were incorporated into professional journals of science and philosophy. History, as it was taught in the white society, had to be altered reinforcing the natural superiority of the race and of western European culture. In this sense education served the purpose of the western European institution. What was taught in the academies was also taught at home and has become woven into the fabric of our society and prejudices today (Evans, 1992; Knowles & Prewitt, 1969). Following, is a list of the ways this myth was supported.

Slavery builds God's kingdom. From the very first ventures into the realm of slavery, traders justified their actions convinced it was an effective means to "evangelize" the pagan black race. The Puritans as well recognized this benefit of slavery. Associations were formed for this purpose and "evangelists" and "missionaries" committed their lives to the conversion of "black heathen." The first northern missionaries were later replaced by southern counterparts. Slave owners recognized that Christianity would promote a sense of "spiritual equality". They feared lessons brought by northern Bible teachers would threaten their position and economic survival, which depended on docile, obedient, hard-working slaves. (Mathews, 1977; Jenkins, 1980; Banks, 1972; Birney, 1842).

Specifically, slaveowners feared teachings based on passages such as the Apostle Paul's Letter to the church in Galatia (Asia Minor) where he says, "For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ." (Galatians 3:27-28 NKJV). For this reason, slaves needed to remain "ignorant" and illiterate. Full access to the teachings of the New Testament would "raise" their position to be "equals" with white people. Even in a spiritual sense, this was totally unacceptable and much to great of a risk. The southern Bible teachers willing complied with the slaveowners demands.

Lyman Beecher, a Congregationalist and Presbyterian preacher, theology professor and seminary president endorsed slavery by his unwillingness to "pronounce slaveholding a personal sin." He believed it was part of America's spiritual destiny to transport slaves here, Christianize them and return them to Africa. Even if Negroes were to be freed, it was accepted they could not share in the American destiny. It was most popular to suggest all free Negroes should be deported to their African homes (Thompson, 1971).

By Victor A. Varis

http://www.ciurlionis.net/varis/library/myth.htm#How the Inferiority Myth Was Perpetuated

[Without question, there isn’t enough information to substantiate the so-called Curse of Ham rational. If people truly want to find evidence of Biblical prophecy regarding Black enslavement and why, they should focus on Deuteronomy 28th Chapter and Leviticus 26th Chapter (the TransAtlantic Slave Trade) where the All-Mighty GOD has the Prophet Moses tell the Children of Israel that they will be taken into captivity in foreign lands, and all because they forsook HIM and HIS Law. This is not to say that all Blacks are descended from the Biblical Israelites, but rather all Blacks endured the effects of this punishment. Because this "curse" fell on the Black Hebrew Israelites that GOD cast from HIS Land, wherever they were forced to go in this World caused the fall of other Black Peoples. It is very well documented that the Black Hebrew Israelites were forcibly taken, as well as fled into and throughout "Africa," the Middle East, and Asia because of captivity, famine, and wars wherever they attempted to survive. Those who believe that GOD is not involved in this entire matter regarding Blacks being the "tail" and Whites the "head," know absolutely nothing about ubiquitous Biblical prophecy - aside from these two chapters submitted herewith. As unbelievable as it may seem, the fall of Black Hebrew Israelites led to the rise of White Rule in this World. By the way, the Slave Master’s religion (quite different from GOD’s long established Paths of Righteousness and what HE REQUIRES: Deuteronomy 10:12,13 and Deuteronomy 32:26,27) and the Slave Master’s educational system contributes to continued suppression and brainwashing of Black Peoples. T.Y., Editor]

*********

BLACKS AND WHITE "JEWS"

AND

THEIR HIDDEN AGENDA

I just thought you might want to know the TRUTH about White Jews and their hidden agendas, and especially why they are ALWAYS deep up into Black organizations and affairs, i.e., those they can infiltrate, bribe, and manipulate. WHITE "JEWS" HAVE GOOD REASON FOR KEEPING TABS ON BLACK FOLKS!

It's hard to believe that any White Jews at all can be against Reparations for Descendants of Slaves whose forebears suffered the worst Holocaust ever to befall human beings. White Jews are getting their Reparations from the Germans (with US assistance) and are the biggest welfare recipients of the United States and while they have the best of three Worlds: the US, Europe, and Israel.

Blacks out of Africa were forcibly taken in shackles to the Americas and to countries throughout Europe to become Slaves for many generations without freedom and liberty to function as human beings, educate themselves, or speak for themselves. They were classified as "chattel." Blacks lost their empowerment, self determination, identities, cultures, and ability to worship freely. Slaves were abused, beaten unmercifully, maimed, raped, and murdered and subjected to working in the cold and the summer heat for hours for the benefit of their White Slave Masters, their legacy, and for the establishment of the United States. The sad and depressing situation with the Slaves was that they toiled for all their lives knowing full well that their children would also suffer the same inhumane fate of enslavement. There is no restitution for this crime against Black Humanity that has physically and mentally harmed Blacks unto this day.

White Jews also endured free labor for the Nazis, and I am sure it was devastating. However, their Holocaust lasted for approximately thirteen years, and when it was over, their names were still in tact. The Black Holocaust lasted for so long that Descendants of Slaves yet bear the names of the Slave Masters and few know anything about their heritage due to total ethnic cleansing.

Most White Jews (think David "Horrorwitz") do not want Blacks to receive Reparations because many revelations will come to light when Nations finally agree to pay restitution for the TransAtlantic Slave Trade and no doubt even before. The questions will arise, "Who’s responsible, and why should they pay the DEBT?" As emphatic as White Jews have been about their not being involved in the Slave Trade, evidence abounds that they were the "Mother of All Slavers." Since they do not want to be identified with the Truth of the matter, they are against Reparations for the survivors of the Slave Trade.

Another revelation that cannot be dismissed is the fact that there are Blacks calling themselves Hebrew Israelites with startling evidence that the Biblical Israelites were indeed Black. Proof of this is written in the Book of Deuteronomy 28th Chapter that prophesies (AFTER THE NATION OF ISRAEL IS DELIVERED OUT OF EGYPT) that the Children of Israel would be involved in a Slave Trade: "Thy sons and thy daughters shall be given unto another people, and thine eyes shall look, and fail with longing for them all the day long: and there shall be no might in thine hand" (28:32). And "Thou shalt beget sons and daughters, but thou shalt not enjoy them; for they shall go into captivity" (28:41). And in Deuteronomy 32:26 where it is written, "I said, I would scatter them into corners, I would make the remembrance of them to cease from among men" is just more evidence of this hidden Truth. The curses mentioned in Deuteronomy 28th Chapter only happened to Blacks in the TransAtlantic Slave Trade. Although all the Blacks out of Africa were enslaved, all Blacks are not descended from the Children of Israel.

Not by any stretch of the imagination do European Jews fit the mold of this prophecy. In no way are they the tail and their enemies the head (28:44). They are the richest people in the World and no one controls them. THEY CONTROL THE MARKETS, THE WORLD ECONOMY, AND SEEMINGLY THE UNITED STATES!!!

I also feel it’s important to know that the Prophet Moses was mistaken for an Egyptian. And there is no way that Prime Minister Ariel Sharon could hardly be mistaken for an Ancient Egyptian - NO WAY! So, who are these people?

During the Grecian and Roman Eras, many, many Peoples from Europe and the Middle East converted to "Judaism" in the thousands, and the last of these peoples to convert to this very well organized, man-made religion were the Khazars. The Judahites, the last of the Israelites in the land, went into captivity during the Grecian Empire when the Greeks "removed them far from their border" (Joel 3:6) fulfilling the prophecy in the Book of Deuteronomy. Thus the Most High GOD of Israel caused all twelve Tribes to go into captivity all because they forsook HIM and HIS Book of the Law for false gods (28:15 and Deuteronomy 32:15 -17). By the way, it was and still is GOD’s Book of the Law that defines Righteousness - not the Jewish Talmud that has conveniently changed and distorted GOD’s Law for the benefit of White "Jews" who, by the way, are still involved in "their" conversion processes to increase their numbers.

Reparations will bring about relocations and some Black Hebrew Israelites will want to return to GOD’s Holy Land. But White Jews have control over their convenient "Law of Return," and it doesn’t entail descendants of Moses returning to the Land of Canaan.

I said all this to say that White Jews have their own agendas and have no problems with Blacks staying in the lands of their captivity and enduring the abhorrent Black dilemma that sustains their suppression, racism, discrimination, impoverishment, illiteracy, and ghetto life that promises utmost despair and misery. And as long as Black Hebrew Israelites are ignorant of the True GOD of Abraham and Moses and HIS Book of the Law, the longer the converted-White "Jew" has control of GOD’s Land. By the way, when you read about White Jews encouraging Blacks to remain Christians, well, now you know why!!!

This article is not about hate or so-called anti-semitism. I am a descendant of the Biblical Israelites which makes me a Shemite. This article is about TRUTH - information that has been hidden from Black Folks for far too long! And I urge one and all to do your research!

Tziona Yisrael, Editor

REPARATIONS NOW IN OUR LIFETIME Newsletter

www.thelawkeepers.org

(Click on "Repnow")

P.S. DETAILED EVIDENCE THAT PROVES THE REMNANT OF JUDAH WAS TAKEN INTO CAPTIVITY AND INTO EXILE DURING THE GRECIAN EMPIRE AND LONG BEFORE THE EXISTENCE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE... can be found on the above WebSite under "Articles."

[A sensational book to read about "The Mother of All Slavers" is The Secret Relations Between Blacks and Jews. I promise that it will astound you!!! You should be able to purchase it at KHALIFAH'S BOOKSELLERS & ASSOCIATES www.KBAbooks.com. We cannot let the White "Jews" off the hook. They are no angels, by no means, and must pay for their active and economic role in the enslavement of Blacks out of Africa. They must also pay for causing the World to believe that Blacks are inferior to Whites. T.Y., Editor]

*********

PAPERS SHOW U.S. KNEW OF

GENOCIDE IN RWANDA

NY Times Article

August 22, 2001

WASHINGTON, Aug. 21, Newly declassified government documents show that several senior United States officials were aware of the dimensions of the genocide in Rwanda in early 1994, even as some sought ways to avoid getting involved.

The 16 documents, released today by the National Security Archive, a research group at George Washington University, provide new details of the deliberations within the Clinton administration from April through May 1994 as the killings took place. By the end of June, an estimated 800,000 people were killed by government-backed militias.

The general contours of the inability and unwillingness of the United Nations and its members, notably the United States, France and Belgium, to help stop the killings have been widely reported. The United Nations studied the debacle in detail, and its top officials have acknowledged serious mistakes.

President Clinton, during a visit to Rwanda in March 1998, expressed deep remorse about his administration's inaction. He said people in distant offices, like himself, did not appreciate what was happening on the fields of Central Africa.

But the disclosure today suggests, for example, that some officials knew the potential for mass slaughter in Rwanda. In addition, once it began on April 6, after the Rwandan president was apparently assassinated when his plane was shot down, several of them tried to persuade their superiors to act.

One of them was Prudence Bushnell, the principal deputy assistant secretary of state for African affairs. In a memorandum dated April 6, she warned her superiors, including Secretary of State Warren Christopher, that the killing of the Rwandan president that day would probably produce widespread violence and that the "military intends to take over power temporarily."

A cable dated April 29, shows that Ms. Bushnell spoke on the telephone with Col. Thoneste Bagasora, a Rwandan official who was later identified as a leader of the massacres. She told him Washington was aware of his actions and urged him to end the killings.

"This shows that our officials knew who to call three weeks into the killing," said William Ferroggiaro, the editor of the documents for the National Security Archive. "Ms. Bushnell, to her credit, made this initiative. She discovered who was responsible, even though you wouldn't know it by his title." Colonel Bagasora has since been charged with crimes against humanity and is awaiting trial.

Mr. Christopher did not return a telephone call. Officials at the United States Embassy in Guatemala, where Ms. Bushnell is ambassador, said she was traveling and could not be reached for comment.

The documents also form the basis for an article in the September issue of The Atlantic Monthly by Samantha Power, the executive director of the human rights center at Harvard University.

Her article, which examines how American policy makers behaved during the massacres, concludes that American officials allowed the genocide to occur out of a combination of disinterest in Africa, a preference for negotiations over military intervention, and the residual trauma from the recent deaths of 18 American peacekeepers in Somalia.

The documents also provide more details behind the American government's decision to avoid calling the killings genocide.

One document, dated May 1, 1994, summarizes a meeting of several unidentified officials who were analyzing the Rwanda situation. The meeting ends with a warning against branding the massacres genocide.

"Be careful," the document reads. "Legal at State was worried about this yesterday. Genocide finding could commit U.S.G. to actually `do something." "Legal" refers to the legal adviser at the State Department and U.S.G. is the United States government. The officials worried that if "genocide" was used, Washington would have to act because it is a signatory to antigenocide conventions of 1948.

Other documents show that some officials pressed Mr. Christopher to authorize the use of the term genocide. A memo from Toby T. Gati, assistant secretary of the State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research, concluded that genocide had indeed occurred. Similarly Joan Donoghue, of the legal adviser's office, concluded in a memo disclosed today that genocide had taken place.

Using the Gati and Donoghue memorandums, several senior officials urged Mr. Christopher to authorize the use of the term, arguing that failure to do so would undermine American credibility, and contending that it would not force Washington to act.

In response, Mr. Christopher authorized officials to say that "acts of genocide had occurred." Mr. Ferroggiaro said Mr. Christopher did not flatly called the slaughter genocide until June 10.

By Neil A. Lewis

http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/22/international/africa/22RWAN.html?ex=999491803&ei=1&en=a60736e8080b8306">http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/22/international/africa/22RWAN.html?ex=999491803&ei=1&en=a60736e8080b8306

Submitted by dolphingreen@hotmail.com

[So, the American government didn’t want the killings in Rwanda to be called "genocide." Just like White Jews don’t want the TransAtlantic Slave Trade rightfully to be called a Black "Holocaust," huh? We do know what group of people held positions all up in the Clinton Administration, don’t we? I hope everyone is gettin’ all of this!!! T.Y., Editor]

*********

 

ZIMBABWE’S PRESIDENT ACCUSES THE UNITED STATES,

OTHER COUNTRIES OF RACISM

The Associated Press

August 11, 2001

HARARE, Zimbabwe (AP) President Robert Mugabe lashed out Saturday at the United States and other Western nations he said were planning racist and punitive sanctions against his government because of its seizures of white-owned farms.

"What is our crime? Our crime is that we are black and in America blacks are a condemned race," Mugabe told a ceremony honoring black guerrillas of the bush war that ended white rule of Zimbabwe in 1980.

On Aug. 1, the U.S. Senate approved a bill offering a wide-ranging aid package to the southern African nation on the condition it ends government-endorsed violence and intimidation.

The bill also urged President Bush to consult with European Union countries, Canada and other nations on possible sanctions against Zimbabweans responsible for the "deliberate breakdown of the rule of law, politically motivated violence, and intimidation in Zimbabwe."

The bill still has to be approved by the U.S. House of Representatives. Mugabe called the Senate action an affront to Zimbabwe's sovereignty.

"We will never revert to be a colony by remote control by the United States," Mugabe said. He said his government was acting in fairness by demanding land "from the kith and kin of the God-chosen Anglo-Saxons who only yesterday condemned us as slaves." "These Anglo-Saxon bigots glibly use the language of democracy to duck their colonial responsibilities," he said. He condemned white farmers in Zimbabwe who supported foreign sanctions.

"We will proceed with land reform with or without their cooperation, with or without sanctions. Let that be known here and abroad, let farmers tell their constituencies overseas," Mugabe said. "We will not budge on this question."

On Friday, 21 white farmers were denied bail after their arrest Monday on charges of attacking black squatters and ruling party militants who had occupied white land in the Chinhoyi corn and tobacco district, 70 miles northwest of Harare.

Addressing about 6,000 supporters at the Heroes Acre, a cemetery for guerrilla leaders and politicians, Mugabe said some of the arrested farmers fought against his guerrilla fighters in Rhodesia, as Zimbabwe was known.

Mugabe's government has targeted more than 4,600 white-owned farms about 95 percent of land owned by whites for confiscation without compensation.

Since March 2000, ruling party militants led by veterans of the independence war have illegally occupied more than 1,700 farms.

The occupiers have been blamed for much of the political violence that surrounded parliamentary elections last year and has continued ahead of a presidential poll early next year, leaving at least 36 people dead, nine of them white farmers.

Submitted by ALARKAM@webtv.net (Malik Al-Arkam)

[Strange how it was all right for the British to take the lands of the Blacks, but it's all wrong for the Blacks to take them back! T.Y., Editor]

*********

INTERESTING TIDBITS:

<
THE ETHICS OF REPARATIONS: ENGAGING THE HOLOCAUST OF ENSLAVEMENT


June 23, 2001

The struggle for reparations for the Holocaust of Enslavement of African people is clearly one of the most important struggles being waged in the world today.

For it is about fundamental issues of human freedom, human justice and the value we place on human life in the past as well as in the present and future. It is a struggle which, of necessity, contributes to our regaining and refreshing our historical memory as a people remembering and raising up the rightful claims of our ancestors to lives of dignity and decency and to our reaffirming and securing the rights and capacity of their descendants to live free, full and meaningful lives in our times.

But this struggle, like all our struggles, begins with the need for a clear conception of what we want, how we define the issue and explain it to the world and what is to be done to achieve it. There are several ways to frame and approach this important issue or rather different aspects to one larger project:

(1) the legislative dimension as with the Conyers Bill, H.R. 40 and local and state bills and resolutions;
(2) the legal as N'COBRA and the Harvard group are doing;
(3) the political by which there is mass organization to support the project;
(4) the economic which is the major focus of all the above efforts; and
(5) the ethical initiative which I wish to engage in this paper. Our contention in the Organization Us is that the ethical dimension is the first and most fundamental dimension of the reparations issue and that unless that is engaged and successfully pursued, the issue of reparations will appear to lack moral grounding in the court of national and world opinion, and thus, will be cast as a claim unworthy of support on any other level.

In consideration of the issue of reparations as essentially and foremost an ethical issue, it must above all be framed in ethical terms. Therefore, the struggle for reparations begins with the definition of the horrendous injury to African people which demands repair.
In other words, to talk of reparations is first to identify and define the injury, to say what it is and is not, to define its nature and its impact on the one(s) injured. Unless this is done first and maintained throughout the process, there is no case for reparations only an incoherent set of claims without basis in ethics or law.

This is why the established order works so hard to define away the historical and ongoing character of the injury. This is especially done in two basic ways. First, the injury is distorted and hidden under the category of "slave trade". The category trade tends to sanitize the high level of violence and mass murder that was inflicted on African peoples and societies. If the categorization of the Holocaust of Enslavement can be reduced to the category of "trade" two things happen. First, it becomes more of a commercial issue and problem than a moral one. And secondly, since trade is the primary focus, the mass murder or genocide can be and often is conveniently understood and accepted a simply collateral damage of a commercial venture gone bad.

A second attempt of the established order to deny the horrendous nature of the injury and its essential responsibility for it is to claim collaboration of the victims in their own victimization. Here it is morally and factually important to make a distinction between collaborators among the people and the people themselves. Every people faced with conquest, oppression and destruction has had collaborators among them, but it is factually inaccurate and morally wrong and repulsive to indict a whole people for a holocaust which was imposed on them and was aided by collaborators. Every holocaust had collaborators: the Native Americans, Jews, Australoids, Armenians and Africans. No one morally sensitive claims Jews are responsible for their holocaust based on the evidence of Jewish collaborators. How then are Africans indicted for the collaborators among them?

Although there are other ways, the established order seeks to undermine the factual and moral basis of the African claim for reparations, these two are indispensable to its efforts. And thus, they must be raised up and rejected constantly, for they speak to the indispensable need to define the injury to African people and to maintain control of it.

As US has maintained since the Sixties concerning European cultural hegemony, one of the greatest powers in the world is to be able to define reality and make others accept it even when it's to their disadvantage. And it is this power to define the injury of holocaust as trade and self-victimization and make Africans accept it, that has dominated the discourse on enslavement in America. Our task it to reframe the discourse and initiate a new national dialog on this.

We have argued that the injury must be defined as holocaust. By holocaust we mean a morally monstrous act of genocide that is not only against the people themselves, but also a crime against humanity. The Holocaust of enslavement expresses itself in three basic ways: the morally monstrous destruction of human life, human culture and human possibility.

In terms of the destruction of human life, estimates run as high as ten to a hundred million persons killed individually and collectively in various brutal and vicious ways. The destruction of culture includes the destruction of centers, products and producers of culture: cities, towns, villages, libraries, great literatures (written and oral), and works of art and other cultural creations as well as the creative and skilled persons who produced them.

And finally, the morally monstrous destruction of human possibility involved redefining African humanity to the world, poisoning past, present and future relations with others who only know us through this stereotyping and thus damaging the truly human relations among peoples. It also involves lifting Africans out of their own history making them a footnote and forgotten casualty in European history and thus limiting and denying their ability to speak their own special cultural truth to the world and make their own unique contribution to the forward flow of human history.

It is here that the issue of stolen labor and ill-gotten gains which is seen as important to the legal case can be raised. For in removing us from our own history, enslaving us and brutally exploiting our labor, it limited and prevented us from building our own future and living the lives of dignity and decency which is our human right.

At this point, it is important to stress the role of intentionality in the Holocaust. Again, discussion of the Holocaust as a commercial project often leads to an understanding of the massive violence and mass murder as unintended collateral damage. Thus, to frame it rightfully as a moral issue rather than a commercial one, we must use terms of discourse which speak not only to the human costs, but to the element of intentionality. It is in this regard that Us maintains that maagamizi, the Swahili term for Holocaust, is more appropriate than its alternative category maafa. For maafa which means calamity, accident, ill luck, disaster, or damage does not indicate intentionality. It could be a natural disaster or a deadly highway accident. But maagamizi is derived from the verb -angamiza which means to cause destruction, to utterly destroy and thus carries with it a sense of intentionality. The "a" prefix suggests an amplified destruction and thus speaks to the massive nature of the Holocaust.

Clearly, it is issues like these and the ones discussed below which require an expanded communal, national and international dialog, which precedes and makes possible a final decision on the definition and meaning of the Holocaust, and the morally and legally compelling steps which must be taken to repair this horrendous past and ongoing injury. Therefore, in the context of holocaust, it is clear that reparations is more than receiving payments.

Indeed, in the Husia, the sacred text of ancient Egypt, we find a concept of restoration, i.e., healing and repairing the world that is appropriate in discussing the reparations project. The word is serudj and it is part of a phrase serudj-ta, meaning to repair and heal the world making it more beautiful and beneficial than it was before. This is an ongoing moral obligation in the Kawaida (Maatian) ethical tradition and is expressed in the following terms:

(1) to raise up that which is in ruins;
(2) to repair that which is damaged;
(3) to rejoin that which is severed;
(4) to replenish that which is depleted;
(5) to strengthen that which is weakened;
(6) to set right that which is wrong; and
(7) to make flourish that which is insecure and undeveloped.

Again, then, an expansive and morally worthy concept of reparations as repair and healing requires more than monetary focus and payments.

Regardless of the eventual shape of the evolved discourse and policy on reparations, there are five essential aspects which must be addressed and included in any meaningful and moral approach to reparations. They are public admission, public apology, public recognition, compensation, and institutional preventive measures against the recurrence of holocaust and other similar forms of massive destruction of human life, human culture and human possibility.

First, there must be public admission of Holocaust committed against African people by the state and the people. This, of course, must be preceded by a public discussion or national conversation in which whites overcome their acute denial of the nature and extent of injuries inflicted on African people and concede that the most morally appropriate term for this utter destruction of human life, human culture and human possibility is holocaust.

Secondly, once there is public discussion and concession on the nature and extent of the injury, then there must be public apology. One of the reasons we rejected the one-sentence attempt to get a congressional apology is that it was premature and did not allow for discussion and admission of holocaust. In addition, as the injured party, Africans must initiate and maintain control of the definition and discussion of the injury. No one would suggest or contemplate Germans superceding Jewish initiatives and claims concerning their holocaust, nor Turks seizing the initiative in the resolution of the Armenian holocaust claims. The point here is that Africans must define the framework for the discussion and determine the content of the apology. And, of course, the apology can't be for "slave trade," or simply "slavery"; it must be an apology for committing holocaust. Moreover, the state must offer it on behalf of its white citizens. For the state is the crime partner with corporations in the initiation, conduct and sustaining of this destructive process. It maintained and supported the system of destruction with law, army, ideology and brutal suppression. Thus, it must offer the apology for holocaust committed.

Thirdly, public admission and public apology must be reinforced with public recognition through institutional establishment, monumental construction, educational instruction through the school and university system and the media directed toward teaching and preserving memory of the horror and meaning of the Holocaust of enslavement, not only for Africans and this country, but also for humanity as a whole.

Here it is important to note that the first holocaust memorial should have been for Native Americans who suffered the first holocaust in this hemisphere. And we must address their holocaust concerns and claims, as a matter of principle and with the understanding that until and unless they receive justice in their rightful claims, the country can never call itself a free, just or good society.

Fourthly, reparations also requires compensation in various forms. Compensation can never be simply money payoffs either individually or collectively. Nor should the movement for reparations be reduced to simply a quest for compensation without addressing the other four aspects. Indeed, compensation itself is a multidimensional demand and option and may involve not only money, but land, free health care, housing, free education from grade school through college, etc. But whether we choose one or all, we must have a communal discussion of it and then make the choice. Moreover, compensation as an issue is not simply compensation for lost labor, but for the comprehensive injury - the brutal destruction of human lives, human cultures and human possibilities.

Finally, reparations requires that in the midst of our national conversation, we must discuss and commit ourselves to continue the struggle to establish measures to prevent the occurrence of such massive destruction of human life, human culture and human possibility. This means that we must see and approach the reparations struggle as part and parcel of our overall struggle for freedom, justice, equality and power in and over our destiny and daily lives.

In the final analysis, this requires the bringing into being a just and good society and the creation of a context for maximum human freedom and human flourishing. Indeed, it is only in such a context that we can truly begin to repair and heal ourselves, our injuries, return fully to our own history, live free, full, meaningful and productive lives and bring into being the good world we all want and deserve to live in.

By Dr. Maulana Karenga, CSU Long Beach

Submitted by BRC-REPARATIONS: Black Radical Congress - Reparations Caucus

*********


…let's work together to heighten this righteous call for justice.

Peace and Power, Ukali

*********

QUOTATION:


"If a white man hates me, that's his problem. If he has the power to implement his hateful thinking, that's my problem"


A HREF="http://members.aol.com/GhanaUnion/afrohero.html"Ancestor ">http://members.aol.com/GhanaUnion/afrohero.html"Ancestor KwameToure (1941 - 1998) *********

"Power never conceded without a demand, it never did and never will - where there is no struggle, there is no progress." F. Douglas

BECOME A MEMEBER OF N'COBRA. Visit us atwww.N'COBRA.com,or write the national headquarters at:
P.O. Box 62622
Washington. D.C. 20029-2622

E-mail me for further information about the WCAR at onajemuid4@cs.com or write:

Onaje Mu'id
P.O. Box 8003
Englewood, NJ 07631.

*Onaje Mu'id is a human rights activist with the International Commissioner of N'COBRA and Policy Chair of the National Black Alcoholisms and Addiction Council-New York Chapter and Ndundu member of the Council of Independent Black Institutions.
*********


WHY THE-POWERS-THAT-BE OWE BLACKS…BIG TIME!

BARBARIC AND INHUMANE CRIMES AGAINST BLACK HUMANITY

And why we are due Reparations for the worst atrocities committed against Black Peoples stolen from the Continent of Africa!

Forced Migration, The TransAtlantic Slave Trade, Ethnic Cleansing, Willie Lynch and Self-Hatred, So-called Sharecropping, Black Codes, Jim Crow Laws, Lack of Civil Rights, Lynchings, Institutional Racism, Discrimination, and Prejudice, Repression, Suppression, Restraint, and Control of Black Self Determination and Prosperity, Coloreds Need Not Apply, White Superiority, White Privilege, Miseducation, Unlawful and Unjust Imprisonment, Legal Executions of the Innocent who lack Competent and Compassionate Legal Counsel, Police Brutality and Murder and Trumped up Charges, Racial Profiling, Driving While Black, Stereotyping Blacks, and the list goes on, as to why WE ARE DUE REPARATIONS for enslavement and for the heinous RACISM we endure!!!

Those Whites who called themselves "Superior" to Blacks and called Blacks "Savages" enslaved Black Peoples for hundreds of years, raped black women, sold their babies to other Slave Masters, separated husbands from wives to be sold yet again into Slavery and maimed, castrated, branded and unmercifully beat and murdered their Slaves at will, forbade any form of reading and education for Slaves in order to maintain the Black Man's ignorance, illiteracy, and inferiority for the purpose of exerting and proclaiming the White Man's Superiority. And they called us Savages!

Those who called us Savages forced us from the continent of Africa. Those who called us Savages made us Slaves, took our FREEDOM, and called us "chattel."
Those who called us Savages dehumanized ALL the Blacks who were enslaved in White lands. Those who called us Savages caused us endless misery, despair, pain and suffering, oppression, and affliction.
Those who called us Savages turned Blacks against themselves and brainwashed the Black Peoples to believe their lies and to accept the indoctrination of their religion, culture, and propaganda.
Today, those who are RACIST against Blacks in White Societies deny us our Human Rights.
Today, those who are RACIST against Blacks horde the working poor into ghettoes and provide inferior educational systems in Black neighborhoods, and inhibit Black social and economic growth.
Today, those who are RACIST build billion dollar prison systems and jail Black men, women, and youth without adequate legal representation in the courts while the White privileged go free.
Today, those who are RACIST against Blacks purposefully distinguish between Blacks and the White Privileged in hiring practices in the United States.
Today, the POWERS-THAT-BE and those who are RACIST are the epitome of barbaric savagery against Blacks.
Today, the White Man has a legacy from enslavement of Blacks out of Africa, but neither Slaves nor Descendants of Slave had or have anything resembling the likes of a legacy or Reparations for the Slave Trade after being forced to these shores.
Today, the POWERS-THAT-BE refuse to apologize or show remorse for the hundreds of years of our captivity and forced labor.
Today, the POWERS-THAT-BE refuse to give Descendants of Slaves freedom to return to our cultures and lands with Reparations if this is our desire. Today, there is no relief from the affects of the TransAtlantic Slave Trade and RACISM against Descendants of Slaves, as Blacks still suffer from degradation and erroneous "Justice for All" and "Equal Rights" in America and in all other White dominated countries that prospered due to Black free labor, blood, sweat, tears, and despair.
Today (August 12, 2001), the POWERS-THAT-BE are threatening not to attend the World Conference Against Racism (WCAR) if Reparations for the TransAtlantic Slave Trade and its effects on Blacks in the United States are on the agenda.

The Bush Administration, Congress and the Senate could not make their concerns for Blacks and our needs and the elimination of RACISM from this society more understood: The powers-that-be have no intention to remove RACISM from this society or pay the DEBT for the past atrocities of the Slave Trade. The government's intention is to support Reparations for White Jewish "free labor" during their holocaust - exactly as they have done and to discriminate against Blacks.

IT IS INCUMBENT UPON US TO CHANGE THEIR MINDS BY ANY AND EVERY MEANS NECESSARY!!! Today, due to race hatred and gross violations against Blacks, we are faced with restraint in our pursuit of happiness that GOD knows has been a long time coming. IF WE DON'T CHANGE THESE HORRIBLE TIMES IN OUR LIVES, THEN WHO WILL!

We have a right to be angry and the right to fight for Reparations payments for better lifestyles for ourselves and for our children. If we, Black Folks, don't stand up and shout for what's right and demand justice for the Triangular/African Slave Trade and the affects it has had on people of color since enslavement and 1865, then WHO WILL? The powers-that-be have done nothing to right the wrongs against a Black People who have been under their TOTAL CONTROL since being forced to this land as Slaves and even after the Emancipation Proclamation.

Today, we have made much progress in making Reparations the topic of conversation and in getting organizations and significant individuals involved. But we must be even more diligent until every Black in the United States is fully aware of our need for Reparations which is for our welfare in the US, Self Determination, re-education, and relocation and repatriation to friendly countries.

WE CAN MAKE REPARATIONS A REALITY, BUT WE MUST FORM A UNITED FRONT! WE CAN PROVIDE BETTER COMMUNITIES AND EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS IN OUR NEIGHBORHOODS! AND ABOVE ALL,

WE HAVE THE RIGHT TO DEMAND REPARATIONS TO RELOCATE TO FRIENDLY COUNTRIES THAT DO NOT TOLERATE RACE HATRED AND DISCRIMINATION OF ANY KIND TO BUILD COMMUNITIES CONDUCIVE TO OUR SELF DETERMINATION! AMERICA IS NOT THE GREATEST COUNTRY IN THE WORLD EXCEPT FOR THE WHITE PRIVILEGED. BECAUSE OF ALL THE ATROCITIES THAT HAVE BEFALLEN BLACKS AND OTHER PEOPLE OF COLOR, WE HAVE A RIGHT TO CLAIM REPARATIONS FOR SLAVE LABOR AND THE PAIN AND SUFFERING SLAVES AND DESCENDANTS OF SLAVES HAVE ENDURED SINCE THE 16TH CENTURY! WE CANNOT AFFORD TO MISS THIS OPPORTUNITY FOR PAYMENT OF THIS DEBT, AS THIS IS ALL ABOUT OUR PROSPERITY AND ASSURED FREEDOM FOR OUR PROGENY!

To view all the issues of the Reparations Newsletters, go to the following link: http://www.thelawkeepers.org/repnow01.htm


The Slave Trade was prophesied in the Bible: Deuteronomy 28th Chapter


*********

SLAVE TRADERS IN YALE'S PAST FUEL DEBATE ON RESTITUTION
NY Times Article


August 14, 2001

As it marks its 300th anniversary, Yale University is celebrating what it calls its "long history of activism in the face of slavery" — the abolitionist faculty members who befriended the slaves on the ship Amistad in 1839, and today, the world's first center for the study of slavery.

But in a research paper published today, three Yale scholars say the university is ignoring a less honorable side of its history.

They say Yale relied on slave-trading money for its first scholarships, endowed professorship and library endowment. It honored slave traders when choosing figures to chisel as "Worthies" on the tower at the center of its campus, and only 40 years ago chose the names of slave traders when it was naming some colleges. According to documents these scholars have unearthed, in 1831 Yale officials led the opposition that ultimately stopped construction in New Haven of what would have been the nation's first black college, saying that such an institution in the same city would be "incompatible with the prosperity, if not the existence," of Yale.

The scholars, all doctoral candidates at Yale, say they hope their work will force Yale to the center of a growing national debate over slavery and whether and how to make amends for it.

The article, "Yale, Slavery and Abolition," is being published by the Amistad Committee, which was founded 162 years ago to lead the effort to free the African slaves who landed on a ship in New Haven harbor after rebelling against their captors. It calls for Yale to acknowledge how it has benefited from the profits of slave trade, and to consider reparations to those whose ancestors suffered under slavery.

"Universities are first and foremost supposed to stand up for the truth," said Antony Dugdale, a doctoral student in philosophy and one of the three authors, "and yet there's been a real absence of any real discussion or real scholarship on the history of universities themselves, or their role, with regard to slavery."

Many Americans assume slavery was purely a Southern phenomenon, but some Northerners profited from the slave trade. Universities reaped the benefits: Nicholas and John Brown, two of the founders of what became Brown University, were slave traders; Harvard Law School was endowed by money its founder earned selling slaves in Antigua's cane fields.

In a statement in response to the report, Yale officials defended the university by noting that "Few, if any, institutions or individuals from the period before Emancipation remained untainted by slavery."

But the report's authors, and the Amistad Committee, say that Yale compounded unfortunate history by choosing, between the 1930's and 1970's, to name its most prominent buildings after slave traders or defenders of slavery, even as the country was in the midst of an active effort to break with past racism.

The report does not deny the accomplishments for which Yale presumably chose its honorees — prominent politicians, philosophers and inventors. It objects, however, that Yale, even now, makes no mention of these men's more questionable positions and activities in support of slavery, which might have made them more controversial choices when the campus's most prominent locations were named.

Abolitionists with similarly stellar accomplishments, and Yale degrees, while noted in the university's 300th anniversary literature, receive little recognition on campus. A city high school named for James Hillhouse, a prominent abolitionist, Yale graduate, senator and congressman, was bought by Yale and torn down to make room for two new colleges in the 1960's, one of which was named for Samuel F. B. Morse, the inventor of the telegraph, who defended slavery as a "positive good" and advocated the excommunication of those who supported abolition.

"Yale is far from being the only or the worst in this regard," said Gerald Horne, a professor of African and Afro-American studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, "but on the other hand, Yale purports to be, and is, a leading force in higher education in the United States, and it's important for Yale to set an example."

In its response, the university noted its progressive policies toward blacks and the study of slavery. Yale says it granted the nation's first doctoral degree to a black student in 1876. Today, the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition, founded in 1998 and named for the New York financiers and Yale graduates Richard Gilder and Lewis Lehrman, is the only one of its kind anywhere. Yale also says it was the first university in the country to offer a master's degree in African-American studies.

On the issue of slavery, Yale's director of public affairs, Helaine S. Klasky, said in a statement, "Today, we regret and renounce these evils and seek, through scholarship and communication, to better understand them, but we cannot undo them."

But those who support reparations dismiss this defense as intellectual dishonesty. "As an academic institution with some moral grounding, it's hard to use the argument that `Everyone did it,' " said Charles J. Ogletree, a professor at Harvard Law School and the co-coordinator of the Reparations Coordinating Committee, which is preparing to file a lawsuit in early 2002 on behalf of the descendants of slaves against those who earned "unjust enrichment" from slavery. "It seems to me that someone has to have the courage to say it was flatly wrong and we're going to be prepared to take some courageous steps to affirmatively address the practices and policies that have resulted from this."

It is well known at Yale that John C. Calhoun, a former vice president who is honored as a "Worthy" on Harkness Tower and with a college in his name, was a staunch defender of states' rights and what he called the "good" of slavery. (Of the phrase "All men are born free and equal," he wrote, "It is utterly untrue.")

But the histories of the other figures examined in the new report are not well known, and in many cases, are not in biographies of them.

The scholars gathered their evidence from primary sources, including Yale officials' 1831 statements opposing the black college proposal, bills of sale from slave auctions and census records, as well as from accounts by other historians, and even a senior thesis by Kurt L. Schmoke, the former mayor of Baltimore who is now a senior fellow on the Yale Corporation, the university's governing board, which examined the fight against the black college.

Yale benefited from the slave trade beginning with its first professorship, endowed by Philip Livingston, whom historians record as one of the biggest slave traders in the colonies. Today, the Livingston Gateway at Yale stands in his honor. Similarly, the first scholarships were endowed by profits from a plantation worked by slaves in New England, and the scholarships, as well as a college, are named for the plantation owner George Berkeley. A plaque in the college lauds his effort to establish a college in Bermuda. According to Berkeley papers examined by the report's authors, the college was to be a place to evangelize captured American Indian boys, or as the papers call them, "such savages as are under 10 years of age."

Ten of Yale's 12 residential colleges are named after prominent men in Yale's history. Of the 10, eight owned slaves, and four published or sermonized in favor of slavery.

The report's other two authors, J. J. Fueser and J. Celso de Castro Alves, are doctoral students in American studies and history at Yale. They and Mr. Dugdale said they began the study, which is not their doctoral work, after noting the contradiction between Yale's 300th anniversary statements about its abolitionist past and the prominence it awards Mr. Calhoun. They began to gather other stories about prominent honorees with slave-trading connections, and dug deeper into Yale's history. (Their work will be posted at "www.yaleslavery.org.)

They suggest that Yale organize a conference of its peer institutions to determine how they, and the companies in which their endowments are invested, benefited from slavery. At the least, the study says, Yale should pressure those companies to make amends to the descendants of slaves. Mr. Dugdale suggested that Yale consider restitution, perhaps in the form of scholarships.
Some scholars object that these kind of demands made by those in the reparations movement lack historical perspective.

"Slavery when those people lived was largely an unquestioned part of existence," said John H. McWhorter, author of "Losing the Race: Self- Sabotage in Black America." (Free Press, 2000) "It's downright inappropriate to render a moral judgment on the worth of a person's life based on moral standards which didn't exist at that time — and that includes something as horrific as the ownership of African-American people."

Those who support reparations, however, say Yale must at least acknowledge the complete history behind the names that adorn its architecture. "If we found out that these institutions had been financed by Adolf Hitler or some legitimately despised institution, they wouldn't hesitate to change the name," Professor Ogletree said. "In the same way we can't forget what one man did to virtually destroy a people, we can't forget what a few men did to perpetuate America's worst evil — that's slavery."

By Kate Zernike

http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/13/nyregion/13YALE.html?ex=998796638&ei=1&en=704c0d8b79e79b3b,
Submitted by alarkam@webtv.net

*********


Free The Mind... Free The People... Free The Land...
Robert Hazard
N'COBRA
Board Member
S. E. Regional Representative

*********


LAST BUT NOT LEAST:


WHEN RHAZARD SPEAKS, HE GETS OUR UNDIVIDED ATTENTION:

MAWUSI'S EFFORTS TOWARDS NATION BUILDING: THE AFRIKAN DIASPORA NATION STATE CONFERENCE
REPARATIONS MUST SERVE AS A UNIFYING FORCE AND NOT A DIVISIVE ONE!

August 16, 2001

Hoteph My Brothers And Sisters:

May I say never have I seen an issue as Reparation which serves as a two edged sword and to handle such a weapon require balance, reason, selflessness, unity, honesty, and courage, that is if it is going to be used to cut off the head of Racist injustice, which slavery rendered upon its immediate victims, the Afrikan.

We may attempt to dissect the issue of Reparation in all types of sophisticated ways but the plain and simple way to approach Reparation is to acknowledge that it is an all inclusive term which requires absolute repair of the damage done to the victim by the perpetrator of a crime against humanity and in this case it is the Afrikans. Reparation is a noble cause that must be pursued with dignity and such dignity requires that we do not come off as a people whose primary interest in Reparation is exclusively monetary because it is more than that and to project such an image will be self-destructive and defeating, in our effort to gain restitution for the atrocious behavior that rained upon our people which caused the devastation of a holocaust to take place upon the Afrikan Nation. If we swing the sword of Reparation in the isolated direction of expectancy of only money we will lose in our effort to bring an honorable and respectful closure to this painful period in our Afrikan life.

If we are sincere in our efforts concerning Reparation, the first order of our business should be for all sides on this issue to come together and reach an agreement of understanding on a unified approach on the issue of Reparation. This should be before our mass campaign move before the world public eye on this issue of Reparation. The very meaning of Reparation is to repair that which has been injured from a specific form of actions, to make amends to the unjustly injured. Slavery was a vicious attack upon the wholeness of the Afrikan who was a fallen victim to that devilish institution call slavery and money alone will not be sufficient to repair the damage done. Reparation must come in the form of Land, economic adjustment, justice in the form of self-determination, the power and control over such determining factors, ( place of domicile, right to be self-governed) the opportunity to uninfluenced soulful- spiritual readjustment, and the opportunity to recapture the truthfulness of our Afrikan heritage.

To swing the sword of Reparation in any other direction will be cutting the head off of the divinity of Afrikan unity. The engineers, architects, the enforcers of slavery, such they are that is responsible for making amends in the form of Reparation to the victims descendant and who wear the scars from that devilish institution mixed with racism, prejudice, and injustice, which we experience and reflex unto this day. Let no man, my brothers and sisters, convince you of the foolishness that we the Afrikan is the perpetrator of our own enslavement, do not entertain the jester not even for debate. It is just an old prejudice tactic to get you to feel guilty of your own suffering and to distract us from looking at and accusing the rightful viscous criminal which violated our human rights in the form of that most inhumane institution call slavery. To imply that the Afrikan can experience constructive, qualitative repair in a stolen land called America and the Diaspora is no more than a sign of our submission to our oppressor and a denial of our birth right.
Hoteph
Osiris Akkebala
Chief Elder
(p.a.i.'n)
19th October Conference West Palm Beach Florida

Submitted by BRC-REPARATIONS: Black Radical Congress - Reparations Caucus
***

WCAR A UNITED STATES CONTROLLED CONFERENCE

August 15, 2001
Hoteph My Brothers And Sisters:

Are we so nimble minded to the point that we do not see who it is who call the shots at these U.N. held Conferences? Why is everybody acting so disappointed over the threat of a United States boycott of the Conference in Durban, as a matter of fact why isn't the Conference held in the U.S. since it seem to be a well dominated and controlling influence by the U.S. If this conference is viewed as a success only if the U.S. is in attendance then this is a U.S. conference plain and simple.

The irony of this conference is that it is suppose to be about human rights abuses while all the time the behavior of Racism is being displayed in its decision making about the make-up of the Conference agenda. It is an established fact that America operates under an umbrella of Racism and yet we expect her to go marching into a world Conference confessing to her evil deeds without any coercing by the world. You whose heart is hurt or heavy because of how America is behaving over her past and present action about Racism, is evidence you live in a world of make believe and wishful thinking and not one of facts and reality. America in essence is telling all of us to go to hell if you do not play by my rules, that is plain and simple any fool can see that.

If you who plan to go to Durban did not make your plans based on the facts of your case you hope to present and if your intention was not to address the world about Racism but America, then it is an indication that you do not have a clear understanding of how deep American Racism is in this country, and it clearly indicate that you have not taken into account that America is a very arrogant, deceitful and unconscionable Racist country which feels that things must be done its way or no way and that attitude will remain until she is made to change it, yes made to change it.

So I say to all of the NGO'S go on to Durban with the attitude to hell with whether America is there or not, you are going to present our case to the world and then come on back here and let us begin to put together a plan of action that will extract justice for us out of America with the understanding she will not relinquish it just by the asking nor is she going to give it to us on a silver platter. Also we must realize it is useless to try and appeal to the conscious of America for fairness when such conscious is in defiance of the Afrikan Nation.

It is the 19th of October where all true Black Nationalist-Pan-Afrikans in the Diaspora and the world will gather in West Palm Beach Florida, to map out a plan of action for Afrikans' Liberation.

Selfishness will take you no further than yourself, but unity will take you into eternity: Garvey

A Race without power and authority is a Race without respect: Garvey

Much love to the Afrikan Nation.
Hoteph
Osiris Akkebala
Chief Elder
(p.a.i.'n)
19th October Conference West Palm Beach Florida

*********

It Is The Black Fool Who Say I Have Lost Nothing In Afrika!!
osiris


A fool is verified by the action taken, after which it become a statement of fact.
osiris


*********

Hear the Drum Beat of the Diaspora
Afrikan Diaspora Nation State

"Up You Mighty Race"
*********
RHAZARD'S WebSite:

You can visit the Afrikan Nation State Website at:

www.africaservice.com
Then click on "55 Afrikan Nation." Brother Mawusi

*********

Many thanks to everyone who has submitted support and information for publication to help make OUR Reparations Newsletter the success it is.

IF YOUR ORGANIZATION IS PLANNING A REPARATIONS RALLY, CONFERENCE, OR MARCH, PLEASE: E-MAIL AFRAQUEEN@AOL.COM TO POST YOUR SCHEDULED EVENT.

For previous postings on REPARATIONS NOW IN OUR LIFE TIME and Newsletters, please go to the following link and click on "Repnow": www.thelawkeepers.org

This REPNOW Newsletter is The LawKeepers' contribution to our cause. For information about our determination and direction, please feel free to visit our WebSite and Delphi Forum: http://www,delphi.com/judah

Yehudah Benyamin Yisrael, President (yehudah@thelawkeepers.org / jwright@blackomahaonline.com / Yehudah74@hotmail.com)

Yehudah Yacob, Vice President (MilzAhead@AOL.COM)

Tziona Yisrael, Executive Secretary (Afraqueen@AOL.COM)

(We Exalt and Sanctify the GOD of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and profess the Laws HE gave to HIS Prophet Moses.)

Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom: and with all thy getting, get understanding, Proverb 4:7 / Deuteronomy 28th Chapter: The African Slave Trade